Ubuntu Server documentation

Ubuntu Server is a version of the Ubuntu operating system designed and engineered as a backbone for the internet.

Ubuntu Server brings economic and technical scalability to your datacentre, public or private. Whether you want to deploy an OpenStack cloud, a Kubernetes cluster or a 50,000-node render farm, Ubuntu Server delivers the best value scale-out performance available.


In this documentation

Tutorials
Get started - a hands-on introduction to Ubuntu Server for new users
How-to guides
Step-by-step guides covering key operations and common tasks
Explanation
Concepts - discussion and clarification of key topics
Reference
Technical information - package specifications, APIs, architecture

Project and community

Ubuntu Server is a member of the Ubuntu family. It’s an open source project that welcomes community projects, contributions, suggestions, fixes and constructive feedback.

If you find any errors or have suggestions for improvements to pages, please use the link at the bottom of each topic titled: “Help improve this document in the forum.” This link will take you to the Server Discourse forum for the specific page you are viewing. There you can share your comments or let us know about bugs with any page.

Thinking about using Ubuntu Server for your next project? Get in touch!

PDFs and previous releases

Below are links to the previous Ubuntu Server release server guides as well as an offline copy of the current version of this site:

Ubuntu 20.04 LTS (Focal Fossa) and later: PDF
Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver): PDF

Navigation

Navigation
Level Path Navlink
0 Introduction
0
1 tutorials Tutorials
2 Core tutorial
3 basic-installation Basic installation
2 Next steps
3 attach-your-ubuntu-pro-subscription Attach your Ubuntu Pro subscription
1 how-to How-to guides
2 Server installation
3 amd64
3 how-to-netboot-the-server-installer-on-amd64 amd64 netboot install
3 arm64
3 netboot-the-server-installer-via-uefi-pxe-on-arm-aarch64-arm64-and-x86-64-amd64 arm64 netboot install
3 ppc64el
3 netboot-the-live-server-installer-on-ibm-power-ppc64el-with-petitboot ppc64el netboot install
3 how-to-start-a-live-server-installation-on-ibm-power-ppc64el-with-a-virtual-cd-rom-and-petitboot Virtual CDROM and Petitboot install on ppc64el
3 s390x
3 interactive-live-server-installation-on-ibm-z-vm-s390x s390x install via z/VM
3 non-interactive-ibm-z-vm-autoinstall-s390x Non-interactive IBM z/VM autoinstall (s390x)
3 interactive-live-server-installation-on-ibm-z-lpar-s390x s390x install via LPAR
3 non-interactive-ibm-z-lpar-autoinstall-s390x Non-interactive IBM Z LPAR autoinstall (s390x)
2 Virtualisation & containers
3 Virtual machines
4 virtualisation-with-qemu QEMU
4 create-qemu-vms-with-up-to-1024-vcpus QEMU VMs with up to 1024 vCPUs
4 boot-arm64-virtual-machines-on-qemu ARM64 VMs on QEMU
4 how-to-create-a-vm-with-multipass Multipass
4 create-cloud-image-vms-with-uvtool UVtool
4 virtual-machine-manager virt-manager
4 libvirt Libvirt and virsh
4 how-to-enable-nested-virtualization Nested virtualization
3 Containers
4 lxc-containers LXC
4 lxd-containers LXD
4 docker-for-system-admins Docker for sysadmins
3 Other virtual tools
4 how-to-set-up-ubuntu-on-hyper-v Ubuntu on Hyper-V
2 Networking
3 Networking tools
4 how-to-install-and-configure-isc-kea Install isc-kea
4 how-to-install-and-configure-isc-dhcp-server Install isc-dhcp-server
4 use-timedatectl-and-timesyncd Synchronise time
4 how-to-serve-the-network-time-protocol-with-chrony Serve the NTP
4 how-to-use-dpdk-with-open-vswitch Use Open vSwitch with DPDK
3 Samba
4 member-server-in-an-active-directory-domain Join Active Directory
4 samba-as-a-file-server Set up a file server
4 samba-as-a-print-server Set up a print server
4 share-access-controls Share access controls
4 samba-apparmor-profile Create AppArmor profile
4 how-to-mount-cifs-shares-permanently Mount CIFS shares permanently
3 Legacy pages
4 nt4-domain-controller-legacy NT4 domain controller
4 openldap-backend-legacy OpenLDAP backend
2 Authentication and access
3 Kerberos
4 how-to-install-a-kerberos-server Install a Kerberos server
4 how-to-configure-kerberos-service-principals Configure service principals
4 kerberos-encryption-types Kerberos encryption types
4 how-to-set-up-a-secondary-kdc Set up secondary KDC
4 how-to-set-up-basic-workstation-authentication Basic workstation authentication
4 how-to-set-up-kerberos-with-openldap-backend Kerberos with OpenLDAP backend
3 Network user authentication with SSSD
4 how-to-set-up-sssd-with-active-directory SSSD with Active Directory
4 how-to-set-up-sssd-with-ldap SSSD with LDAP
4 how-to-set-up-sssd-with-ldap-and-kerberos SSSD with LDAP and Kerberos
4 troubleshooting-sssd Troubleshooting SSSD
3 OpenLDAP
4 install-and-configure-ldap Install LDAP
4 ldap-access-control Set up access control
4 openldap-replication Replication
4 how-to-set-up-ldap-users-and-groups LDAP users and groups
4 ldap-and-transport-layer-security-tls LDAP and TLS
4 backup-and-restore-openldap Backup and restore
2 Databases
3 install-and-configure-a-mysql-server MySQL
3 install-and-configure-postgresql PostgreSQL
2 Mail services
3 install-and-configure-postfix Install Postfix
3 install-and-configure-dovecot Install Dovecot
3 install-and-configure-exim4 Install Exim4
2 Printing
3 install-and-configure-a-cups-print-server Set up a CUPS print server
2 Backups and version control
3 how-to-install-and-configure-bacula Install Bacula
3 how-to-install-and-configure-rsnapshot Install rsnapshot
3 how-to-back-up-using-shell-scripts Backup with shell scripts
3 etckeeper etckeeper
2 Web services
3 how-to-install-a-squid-server Install a Squid server
3 get-started-with-lamp-applications Get started with LAMP
3 how-to-install-apache2 Install Apache2
3 how-to-configure-apache2-settings Apache2 settings
3 how-to-use-apache2-modules Apache2 modules
3 how-to-install-nginx Install nginx
3 how-to-configure-nginx nginx settings
3 how-to-use-nginx-modules nginx modules
3 how-to-install-and-configure-php Install PHP
3 how-to-install-and-configure-ruby-on-rails Install Ruby on Rails
3 how-to-install-and-configure-phpmyadmin Install phpMyAdmin
3 how-to-install-and-configure-wordpress Install WordPress
2 Storage
3 how-to-manage-logical-volumes Manage logical volumes
2 Graphics
3 nvidia-drivers-installation Install NVIDIA drivers
3 gpu-virtualization-with-qemu-kvm vGPU with QEMU/KVM
2 Software
3 package-management Package management
3 how-to-upgrade Upgrade
3 reporting-bugs-in-ubuntu-server Reporting bugs
3 kernel-crash-dump Kernel crash dump
3 third-party-repository-usage Third party repository usage
2 Wireguard VPN
3 wireguard-vpn-peer-to-site Peer-to-site
3 wireguard-vpn-peer-to-site-on-router Peer-to-site (on router)
3 wireguard-on-an-internal-system Peer-to-site (inside device)
3 wireguard-vpn-site-to-site Site-to-site
3 using-the-vpn-as-the-default-gateway Default gateway
3 common-tasks-in-wireguard-vpn Common tasks
3 security-tips-for-wireguard-vpn Security tips
3 troubleshooting-wireguard-vpn Troubleshooting
1 explanation Explanation
2 Introduction to…
3 introduction-to-virtualization Virtualization
3 introduction-to-networking Networking
3 introduction-to-samba Samba
3 introduction-to-kerberos Kerberos
3 introduction-to-network-user-authentication-with-sssd SSSD
3 introduction-to-openldap OpenLDAP
3 introduction-to-databases Databases
3 introduction-to-security Security
3 introduction-to-crypto-libraries Cryptographic libraries
3 introduction-to-wireguard-vpn Wireguard VPN
3 introduction-to-web-servers Web services
3 introduction-to-mail-services Mail services
3 introduction-to-high-availability High Availability
3 introduction-to-logging-monitoring-and-alerting Logging, Monitoring and Alerting (LMA)
3 introduction-to-device-mapper-multipathing Multipath
3 introduction-to-backups Backups
2 Virtualisation & containers
3 Virtualisation
4 vm-tools-in-the-ubuntu-space VM tools overview
4 using-qemu-for-microvms QEMU microVMs
4 upgrading-the-machine-type-of-your-vm Upgrade VM machine type
3 Containers
4 container-tools-in-the-ubuntu-space Container tools overview
3 Other tools
4 about-openstack About OpenStack
2 Network
3 networking-key-concepts Networking key concepts
3 configuring-networks Configuring networks
3 about-dynamic-host-configuration-protocol-dhcp About DHCP
3 about-time-synchronisation Time synchronisation
3 about-dpdk The DPDK library
2 Security
3 Cryptography
4 openssl OpenSSL
4 gnutls GnuTLS
4 network-security-services-nss Network Security Services (NSS)
4 java-cryptography-configuration Java cryptography configuration
4 bind-9-dnssec-cryptography-selection BIND 9 DNSSEC cryptography selection
4 openssh-crypto-configuration OpenSSH crypto configuration
4 troubleshooting-tls-ssl Troubleshooting TLS/SSL
2 Server installation
3 choosing-between-the-arm64-and-arm64-largemem-installer-options Choosing between the arm64 and arm64+largemem installer options
2 Storage
3 about-logical-volume-management-lvm About LVM
2 Managing software
3 about-apt-upgrade-and-phased-updates About apt upgrade and phased updates
3 changing-package-files Changing package files
2 Web servers
3 about-web-servers About web servers
3 about-squid-proxy-servers About Squid proxy servers
2 System tuning
3 tuned TuneD
1 reference Reference
2 Server installation
3 system-requirements System requirements
2 Cloud images
3 cloud-images Cloud images
2 Multipath
3 configuring-device-mapper-multipathing Configuration
3 setting-up-device-mapper-multipathing Setup
3 use-and-debug-device-mapper-multipathing Usage and debug
2 Security
3 user-management Users
3 smart-card-authentication Smart card authentication
3 smart-card-authentication-with-ssh Smart card SSH
3 apparmor AppArmor
3 firewalls Firewall
3 certificates Certificates
3 install-a-root-ca-certificate-in-the-trust-store CA trust store
3 console-security Console
2 High Availability
3 pacemaker-resource-agents Pacemaker resource agents
3 pacemaker-fence-agents Pacemaker fence agents
3 distributed-replicated-block-device-drbd Distributed Replicated Block Device (DRBD)
3 migrate-from-crmsh-to-pcs Migrate from crmsh to pcs
2 Observability
3 nagios-and-munin Nagios and Munin
3 how-to-install-and-configure-logwatch Install Logwatch
3 how-to-install-and-configure-munin Install Munin
3 how-to-install-and-configure-nagios-core-3 Install Nagios Core 3
2 Backups and version control
3 basic-backup-shell-script Basic backup shell script
3 archive-rotation-shell-script Archive rotation shell script
2 Debugging
3 about-debuginfod About debuginfod
3 debug-symbol-packages Debug symbol packages
2 Other services
3 domain-name-service-dns Domain Name Service (DNS)
3 ftp-server FTP
3 iscsi-initiator-or-client iSCSI
3 network-file-system-nfs NFS
3 openssh-server OpenSSH
3 how-to-install-and-use-openvpn OpenVPN
3 how-to-install-and-configure-gitolite gitolite
3 vpn-client-software-implementations VPN clients
2 Tools
3 byobu Byobu
3 pam-motd pam_motd
3 how-to-install-and-use-puppet Puppet
2 ROCK images
3 introduction-to-rock-images Intro to ROCK images
3 rock-customisation-with-docker ROCK customisation with Docker
3 multi-node-rock-configuration-with-docker-compose Multi-node configuration with Docker-Compose

Redirects

Mapping table
Path Location
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/server/docs/installation /server/docs/basic-installation
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/server/docs/install/netboot-arm64 /server/docs/netboot-the-server-installer-via-uefi-pxe-on-arm-aarch64-arm64-and-x86-64-amd64
/server/docs/install/netboot-ppc64el /server/docs/netboot-the-live-server-installer-on-ibm-power-ppc64el-with-petitboot
/server/docs/install/ppc64el /server/docs/how-to-start-a-live-server-installation-on-ibm-power-ppc64el-with-a-virtual-cd-rom-and-petitboot
/server/docs/install/s390x-zvm /server/docs/interactive-live-server-installation-on-ibm-z-vm-s390x
/server/docs/install/vm-autoinstall-on-s390x /server/docs/non-interactive-ibm-z-vm-autoinstall-s390x
/server/docs/install/s390x-lpar /server/docs/interactive-live-server-installation-on-ibm-z-lpar-s390x
/server/docs/install/lpar-autoinstall-on-s390x /server/docs/non-interactive-ibm-z-lpar-autoinstall-s390x
/server/docs/virtualization-qemu /server/docs/virtualisation-with-qemu
/server/docs/virtualization-multipass /server/docs/how-to-create-a-vm-with-multipass
/server/docs/virtualization-uvt /server/docs/create-cloud-image-vms-with-uvtool
/server/docs/virtualization-virt-tools /server/docs/virtual-machine-manager
/server/docs/virtualization-libvirt /server/docs/libvirt
/server/docs/containers-lxc /server/docs/lxc-containers
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/server/docs/openvswitch-dpdk /server/docs/how-to-use-dpdk-with-open-vswitch
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/server/docs/samba-file-server /server/docs/samba-as-a-file-server
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/server/docs/samba-openldap-backend /server/docs/openldap-backend-legacy
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/server/docs/service-kerberos-secondary-kdc /server/docs/how-to-set-up-a-secondary-kdc
/server/docs/service-kerberos-workstation-auth /server/docs/how-to-set-up-basic-workstation-authentication
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/server/docs/service-sssd-ad /server/docs/how-to-set-up-sssd-with-active-directory
/server/docs/service-sssd-ldap /server/docs/how-to-set-up-sssd-with-ldap
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/server/docs/service-sssd-troubleshooting /server/docs/troubleshooting-sssd
/server/docs/service-ldap /server/docs/install-and-configure-ldap
/server/docs/service-ldap-access-control /server/docs/ldap-access-control
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/server/docs/service-ldap-usage /server/docs/how-to-set-up-ldap-users-and-groups
/server/docs/service-ldap-with-tls /server/docs/ldap-and-transport-layer-security-tls
/server/docs/service-ldap-backup-restore /server/docs/backup-and-restore-openldap
/server/docs/databases-mysql /server/docs/install-and-configure-a-mysql-server
/server/docs/databases-postgresql /server/docs/install-and-configure-postgresql
/server/docs/mail-postfix /server/docs/install-and-configure-postfix
/server/docs/mail-dovecot /server/docs/install-and-configure-dovecot
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/server/docs/backups-bacula /server/docs/how-to-install-and-configure-bacula
/server/docs/tools-rsnapshot /server/docs/how-to-install-and-configure-rsnapshot
/server/docs/backups-shell-scripts /server/docs/how-to-back-up-using-shell-scripts
/server/docs/tools-etckeeper /server/docs/etckeeper
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/server/docs/lamp-applications /server/docs/get-started-with-lamp-applications
/server/docs/web-servers-apache /server/docs/how-to-install-apache2
/server/docs/programming-php /server/docs/how-to-install-and-configure-php
/server/docs/programming-ruby-on-rails /server/docs/how-to-install-and-configure-ruby-on-rails
/server/docs/gpu-virtualization-with-qemukvm /server/docs/gpu-virtualization-with-qemu-kvm
/server/docs/upgrade-introduction /server/docs/how-to-upgrade
/server/docs/reporting-bugs /server/docs/reporting-bugs-in-ubuntu-server
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/server/docs/wireguard-vpn-peer2site-router /server/docs/wireguard-vpn-peer-to-site-on-router
/server/docs/wireguard-vpn-peer2site-inside /server/docs/wireguard-on-an-internal-system
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/server/docs/wireguard-vpn-security /server/docs/security-tips-for-wireguard-vpn
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/server/docs/virtualization-introduction /server/docs/introduction-to-virtualization
/server/docs/network-introduction /server/docs/introduction-to-networking
/server/docs/samba-introduction /server/docs/introduction-to-samba
/server/docs/kerberos-introduction /server/docs/introduction-to-kerberos
/server/docs/service-sssd /server/docs/introduction-to-network-user-authentication-with-sssd
/server/docs/service-ldap-introduction /server/docs/introduction-to-openldap
/server/docs/databases-introduction /server/docs/introduction-to-databases
/server/docs/security-introduction /server/docs/introduction-to-security
/server/docs/wireguard-vpn-introduction /server/docs/introduction-to-wireguard-vpn
/server/docs/web-servers-introduction /server/docs/introduction-to-web-servers
/server/docs/mail-introduction /server/docs/introduction-to-mail-services
/server/docs/ubuntu-ha-introduction /server/docs/introduction-to-high-availability
/server/docs/logging-monitoring-alerting /server/docs/introduction-to-logging-monitoring-and-alerting
/server/docs/device-mapper-multipathing-introduction /server/docs/introduction-to-device-mapper-multipathing
/server/docs/backups-introduction /server/docs/introduction-to-backups
/server/docs/virtualization-openstack /server/docs/about-openstack
/server/docs/network-configuration /server/docs/configuring-networks
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/server/docs/security-users /server/docs/user-management
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/server/docs/security-apparmor /server/docs/apparmor
/server/docs/security-firewall /server/docs/firewalls
/server/docs/security-certificates /server/docs/certificates
/server/docs/security-trust-store /server/docs/install-a-root-ca-certificate-in-the-trust-store
/server/docs/security-console /server/docs/console-security
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10 Likes

Now that is is being published, suggest to add a large font note at the very top saying “Preliminary and in development for 20.04, contents may have errors and omitions.” This is similar to what we have always done at the old location when we published the preliminary before the release date. The note gets removed on release day.

Done! Thanks for the suggestion

1 Like

We have added a PDF download link to the introduction section of this document. This PDF is refreshed on a daily basis. If anyone would like to snapshot the guide at any stage, please download and rename the PDF for your own use.

1 Like

The PDF version of the serverguide has not updated. It has been well over 24 hours since I made and edit. I want to determine is the file name for the PDF will change, because it is odd and looks machine generated. Currently it is linked from the help.ubunutu.com base page where 20.04 preliminary has been added (but for some reason it didn’t publish last night, maybe tonight), but we won’t be able to do that if it changes.

I’ll add redirects to help.ubuntu.com for lts and stable serverguides to the new spots tomorrow, which should publish sometime Thursday.

EDIT: O.K. I’ll make the PDF link at help.ubuntu.com file name independent by using the same address as herein, instead of what it ends up as (duh).

fixed two more url mapping table entries.
I think I have tried every navigation link now, but am not certain.

Will add a navigation link back to this page, if I can figure it out.

Deleted the “Service - Introduction” topic as it was a filler page, “DNS TBD” was on there but that has an extra page now anyway. I also removed the link from the introduction to not fail on the removed page.

Some more cleanup of no more supported items around IRC and Mailman. Removed the pages and dropped the links from here. For Mailman I re-added links to the upstream setup guide with exim4/postfix on these pages.

Next I’ll re-order the index to keep introdcutions before the content. It doesn’t make sense otherwise and especially in the single-PDF that is generated it is awkward to read it in any other order.

Fixed another missing url entry in the mapping table.
This time I looked at the source code of a page (not that the actual page used matters) and searched for discourse, only finding the one expected reference. I also looked at the code manually.

I just added another page: Service - LDAP Access Control

I hope I did it correctly this time

Any chance of getting an ePub format as well?
I’d love it if I could read it on the road and PDF is not a good format for that…

Hey there. The links in the main content of https://ubuntu.com/server/docs are broken. For example: https://ubuntu.com/t/installation 404s. The sidebar links are working.

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Upon further inspection it looks like all of the https://ubuntu.com/t/… URLs are 404ing. Specifically I was interested in virtualization (https://ubuntu.com/t/virtualization-introduction) when I found that many of the links aren’t working.

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Hi Jrmyck, thanks for pointing out the broken links! They should be fixed now. This table of links on the Intro page is new, and still a bit work in process. I’d appreciate if you’d doublecheck and notice if any are still incorrect, or if there are any other necessary improvements for the front table links.

Greetings
Still an issue
404 ubuntu 16 docs
404 ubuntu 16 server pdf as well

Are there official alternatives from Canonical or do we find a third party host for this? - If so. A link here would be of help please.

Thank you everyone.

I removed the links to the 16.04 documentation, as it was deleted from help.ubuntu.com when it became EOL (End Of Life) earlier this year. I forgot about these links at the time.

I keep some old copies of help.ubuntu.com, as it was on some dates, on my web site. I also use it to preview pending updates to be sure we didn’t make a mistake. @food4doug, you could get 16.04 docs there. I encode the link below to prevent the barrage of bots that come whenever I post a link:

double u double u double u dot smythies dot com /~doug/linux/ubuntu-docs/help.ubuntu.com/

The PDF does not appear to be updating, at least not daily.

The PDF still has not updated. It also doesn’t seem to include screen shots.

Now that we want to start preliminary publications of 22.04 LTS documentation, it is time to create the required infrastructure in this disclosure version of the serverguide to continue to support 20.04 while also publishing 22.04, and in 2 years 24.04.

The PDF is still not updating.