Reference

Table of contents

Introduction

Distribution installers, cloud instantiation, image builds for particular
devices, or any other way to deploy an operating system put its desired
network configuration into YAML configuration file(s). During
early boot, the netplan “network renderer” runs which reads
/{lib,etc,run}/netplan/*.yaml and writes configuration to /run to hand
off control of devices to the specified networking daemon.

  • Configured devices get handled by systemd-networkd by default,
    unless explicitly marked as managed by a specific renderer (NetworkManager)
  • Devices not covered by the network config do not get touched at all.
  • Usable in initramfs (few dependencies and fast)
  • No persistent generated config, only original YAML config
  • Parser supports multiple config files to allow applications like libvirt or
    lxd to package up expected network config (virbr0, lxdbr0), or to change
    the global default policy to use NetworkManager for everything.
  • Retains the flexibility to change backends/policy later or adjust to
    removing NetworkManager, as generated configuration is ephemeral.

General structure

netplan's configuration files use the [YAML](http://yaml.org/spec/1.1/current.html) format. All `/{lib,etc,run}/netplan/*.yaml` are considered. Lexicographically later files (regardless of in which directory they are) amend (new mapping keys) or override (same mapping keys) previous ones. A file in `/run/netplan` completely shadows a file with same name in `/etc/netplan`, and a file in either of those directories shadows a file with the same name in `/lib/netplan`.

The top-level node in a netplan configuration file is a network: mapping
that contains version: 2 (the YAML currently being used by curtin, MaaS,
etc. is version 1), and then device definitions grouped by their type, such as
ethernets:, modems:, wifis:, or bridges:. These are the types that our
renderer can understand and are supported by our backends.

Each type block contains device definitions as a map where the keys (called
“configuration IDs”) are defined as below.

Device configuration IDs

The key names below the per-device-type definition maps (like ethernets:)
are called "ID"s. They must be unique throughout the entire set of
configuration files. Their primary purpose is to serve as anchor names for
composite devices, for example to enumerate the members of a bridge that is
currently being defined.

(Since 0.97) If an interface is defined with an ID in a configuration file; it
will be brought up by the applicable renderer. To not have netplan touch an
interface at all, it should be completely omitted from the netplan configuration
files.

There are two physically/structurally different classes of device definitions,
and the ID field has a different interpretation for each:

Physical devices

(Examples: ethernet, modem, wifi) These can dynamically come and go between
reboots and even during runtime (hot plugging). In the generic case, they
can be selected by match: rules on desired properties, such as name/name
pattern, MAC address, driver, or device paths. In general these will match
any number of devices (unless they refer to properties which are unique
such as the full path or MAC address), so without further knowledge about
the hardware these will always be considered as a group.

It is valid to specify no match rules at all, in which case the ID field is
simply the interface name to be matched. This is mostly useful if you want
to keep simple cases simple, and it’s how network device configuration has
been done for a long time.

If there are match: rules, then the ID field is a purely opaque name
which is only being used for references from definitions of compound
devices in the config.

Virtual devices

(Examples: veth, bridge, bond) These are fully under the control of the
config file(s) and the network stack. I. e. these devices are being created
instead of matched. Thus match: and set-name: are not applicable for
these, and the ID field is the name of the created virtual device.

Common properties for physical device types

Note: Some options will not work reliably for devices matched by name only
and rendered by networkd, due to interactions with device renaming in udev.
Match devices by MAC when setting options like: wakeonlan or *-offload.

  • match (mapping)

    This selects a subset of available physical devices by various hardware
    properties. The following configuration will then apply to all matching
    devices, as soon as they appear. All specified properties must match.

    • name (scalar)

      Current interface name. Globs are supported, and the primary use case for
      matching on names, as selecting one fixed name can be more easily achieved
      with having no match: at all and just using the ID (see above).
      (NetworkManager: as of v1.14.0)

    • macaddress (scalar)

      Device’s 6-byte MAC address in the form “XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX” or 20 bytes
      for InfiniBand devices (IPoIB). Globs are not allowed.

    • driver (scalar or sequence of scalars) – sequence since 0.104

      Kernel driver name, corresponding to the DRIVER udev property.
      A sequence of globs is supported, any of which must match.
      Matching on driver is only supported with networkd.

    Examples:

    • All cards on second PCI bus:

      match:
        name: enp2*
      
    • Fixed MAC address:

      match:
        macaddress: 11:22:33:AA:BB:FF
      
    • First card of driver ixgbe:

      match:
        driver: ixgbe
        name: en*s0
      
    • First card with a driver matching bcmgenet or smsc*:

      match:
        driver: ["bcmgenet", "smsc*"]
        name: en*
      
  • set-name (scalar)

    When matching on unique properties such as path or MAC, or with additional
    assumptions such as “there will only ever be one wifi device”, match rules
    can be written so that they only match one device. Then this property can be
    used to give that device a more specific/desirable/nicer name than the
    default from udev’s ifnames. Any additional device that satisfies the match
    rules will then fail to get renamed and keep the original kernel name (and
    dmesg will show an error).

  • wakeonlan (bool)

    Enable wake on LAN. Off by default.

  • emit-lldp (bool) – since 0.99

    (networkd backend only) Whether to emit LLDP packets. Off by default.

  • receive-checksum-offload (bool) – since 0.104

    (networkd backend only) If set to true (false), the hardware offload for
    checksumming of ingress network packets is enabled (disabled). When unset,
    the kernel’s default will be used.

  • transmit-checksum-offload (bool) – since 0.104

    (networkd backend only) If set to true (false), the hardware offload for
    checksumming of egress network packets is enabled (disabled). When unset,
    the kernel’s default will be used.

  • tcp-segmentation-offload (bool) – since 0.104

    (networkd backend only) If set to true (false), the TCP Segmentation
    Offload (TSO) is enabled (disabled). When unset, the kernel’s default will
    be used.

  • tcp6-segmentation-offload (bool) – since 0.104

    (networkd backend only) If set to true (false), the TCP6 Segmentation
    Offload (tx-tcp6-segmentation) is enabled (disabled). When unset, the
    kernel’s default will be used.

  • generic-segmentation-offload (bool) – since 0.104

    (networkd backend only) If set to true (false), the Generic Segmentation
    Offload (GSO) is enabled (disabled). When unset, the kernel’s default will
    be used.

  • generic-receive-offload (bool) – since 0.104

    (networkd backend only) If set to true (false), the Generic Receive
    Offload (GRO) is enabled (disabled). When unset, the kernel’s default will
    be used.

  • large-receive-offload (bool) – since 0.104

    (networkd backend only) If set to true (false), the Large Receive Offload
    (LRO) is enabled (disabled). When unset, the kernel’s default will
    be used.

  • openvswitch (mapping) – since 0.100

    This provides additional configuration for the openvswitch network device.
    If Open vSwitch is not available on the system, netplan treats the presence
    of openvswitch configuration as an error.

    Any supported network device that is declared with the openvswitch
    mapping (or any bond/bridge that includes an interface with an openvswitch
    configuration) will be created in openvswitch instead of the defined
    renderer. In the case of a vlan definition declared the same way,
    netplan will create a fake VLAN bridge in openvswitch with the requested
    vlan properties.

    • external-ids (mapping) – since 0.100

      Passed-through directly to Open vSwitch

    • other-config (mapping) – since 0.100

      Passed-through directly to Open vSwitch

    • lacp (scalar) – since 0.100

      Valid for bond interfaces. Accepts active, passive or off (the
      default).

    • fail-mode (scalar) – since 0.100

      Valid for bridge interfaces. Accepts secure or standalone (the
      default).

    • mcast-snooping (bool) – since 0.100

      Valid for bridge interfaces. False by default.

    • protocols (sequence of scalars) – since 0.100

      Valid for bridge interfaces or the network section. List of protocols to
      be used when negotiating a connection with the controller. Accepts
      OpenFlow10, OpenFlow11, OpenFlow12, OpenFlow13, OpenFlow14,
      OpenFlow15 and OpenFlow16.

    • rstp (bool) – since 0.100

      Valid for bridge interfaces. False by default.

    • controller (mapping) – since 0.100

      Valid for bridge interfaces. Specify an external OpenFlow controller.

      • addresses (sequence of scalars)

        Set the list of addresses to use for the controller targets. The
        syntax of these addresses is as defined in ovs-vsctl(8). Example:
        addresses: [tcp:127.0.0.1:6653, "ssl:[fe80::1234%eth0]:6653"]

      • connection-mode (scalar)

        Set the connection mode for the controller. Supported options are
        in-band and out-of-band. The default is in-band.

    • ports (sequence of sequence of scalars) – since 0.100

      Open vSwitch patch ports. Each port is declared as a pair of names
      which can be referenced as interfaces in dependent virtual devices
      (bonds, bridges).

      Example:

      openvswitch:
        ports:
          - [patch0-1, patch1-0]
      
    • ssl (mapping) – since 0.100

      Valid for global openvswitch settings. Options for configuring SSL
      server endpoint for the switch.

      • ca-cert (scalar)

        Path to a file containing the CA certificate to be used.

      • certificate (scalar)

        Path to a file containing the server certificate.

      • private-key (scalar)

        Path to a file containing the private key for the server.

Common properties for all device types

  • renderer (scalar)

    Use the given networking backend for this definition. Currently supported
    are networkd and NetworkManager. This property can be specified globally
    in network:, for a device type (in e. g. ethernets:) or
    for a particular device definition. Default is networkd.

    (Since 0.99) The renderer property has one additional acceptable value for
    vlan objects (i. e. defined in vlans:): sriov. If a vlan is defined with
    the sriov renderer for an SR-IOV Virtual Function interface, this causes
    netplan to set up a hardware VLAN filter for it. There can be only one
    defined per VF.

  • dhcp4 (bool)

    Enable DHCP for IPv4. Off by default.

  • dhcp6 (bool)

    Enable DHCP for IPv6. Off by default. This covers both stateless DHCP -
    where the DHCP server supplies information like DNS nameservers but not the
    IP address - and stateful DHCP, where the server provides both the address
    and the other information.

    If you are in an IPv6-only environment with completely stateless
    auto-configuration (SLAAC with RDNSS), this option can be set to cause the
    interface to be brought up. (Setting accept-ra alone is not sufficient.)
    Auto-configuration will still honor the contents of the router
    advertisement and only use DHCP if requested in the RA.

    Note that rdnssd(8) is required to use RDNSS with networkd. No extra
    software is required for NetworkManager.

  • ipv6-mtu (scalar) – since 0.98

    Set the IPv6 MTU (only supported with networkd backend). Note
    that needing to set this is an unusual requirement.

    Requires feature: ipv6-mtu

  • ipv6-privacy (bool)

    Enable IPv6 Privacy Extensions (RFC 4941) for the specified interface, and
    prefer temporary addresses. Defaults to false - no privacy extensions. There
    is currently no way to have a private address but prefer the public address.

  • link-local (sequence of scalars)

    Configure the link-local addresses to bring up. Valid options are ‘ipv4’
    and ‘ipv6’, which respectively allow enabling IPv4 and IPv6 link local
    addressing. If this field is not defined, the default is to enable only
    IPv6 link-local addresses. If the field is defined but configured as an
    empty set, IPv6 link-local addresses are disabled as well as IPv4 link-
    local addresses.

    This feature enables or disables link-local addresses for a protocol, but
    the actual implementation differs per backend. On networkd, this directly
    changes the behavior and may add an extra address on an interface. When
    using the NetworkManager backend, enabling link-local has no effect if the
    interface also has DHCP enabled.

    Examples:

    • Enable only IPv4 link-local: link-local: [ ipv4 ]
    • Enable all link-local addresses: link-local: [ ipv4, ipv6 ]
    • Disable all link-local addresses: link-local: [ ]
  • ignore-carrier (bool) – since 0.104

    (networkd backend only) Allow the specified interface to be configured even
    if it has no carrier.

  • critical (bool)

    Designate the connection as “critical to the system”, meaning that special
    care will be taken by to not release the assigned IP when the daemon is
    restarted. (not recognized by NetworkManager)

  • dhcp-identifier (scalar)

    (networkd backend only) Sets the source of DHCPv4 client identifier. If
    mac is specified, the MAC address of the link is used. If this option is
    omitted, or if duid is specified, networkd will generate an
    RFC4361-compliant client identifier for the interface by combining the
    link’s IAID and DUID.

  • dhcp4-overrides (mapping)

    (networkd backend only) Overrides default DHCP behavior; see the
    DHCP Overrides section below.

  • dhcp6-overrides (mapping)

    (networkd backend only) Overrides default DHCP behavior; see the
    DHCP Overrides section below.

  • accept-ra (bool)

    Accept Router Advertisement that would have the kernel configure IPv6 by
    itself. When enabled, accept Router Advertisements. When disabled, do not
    respond to Router Advertisements. If unset use the host kernel default
    setting.

  • addresses (sequence of scalars and mappings)

    Add static addresses to the interface in addition to the ones received
    through DHCP or RA. Each sequence entry is in CIDR notation, i. e. of the
    form addr/prefixlen. addr is an IPv4 or IPv6 address as recognized
    by inet_pton(3) and prefixlen the number of bits of the subnet.

    For virtual devices (bridges, bonds, vlan) if there is no address
    configured and DHCP is disabled, the interface may still be brought online,
    but will not be addressable from the network.

    In addition to the addresses themselves one can specify configuration
    parameters as mappings. Current supported options are:

    • lifetime (scalar) – since 0.100

      Default: forever. This can be forever or 0 and corresponds
      to the PreferredLifetime option in systemd-networkd's Address
      section. Currently supported on the networkd backend only.

    • label (scalar) – since 0.100

      An IP address label, equivalent to the ip address label
      command. Currently supported on the networkd backend only.

    Examples:

    • Simple: addresses: [192.168.14.2/24, "2001:1::1/64"]
    • Advanced:
      ethernets:
        eth0:
          addresses:
            - "10.0.0.15/24":
                lifetime: 0
                label: "maas"
            - "2001:1::1/64"
      
  • ipv6-address-generation (scalar) – since 0.99

    Configure method for creating the address for use with RFC4862 IPv6
    Stateless Address Auto-configuration (only supported with NetworkManager
    backend). Possible values are eui64 or stable-privacy.

  • ipv6-address-token (scalar) – since 0.100

    Define an IPv6 address token for creating a static interface identifier for
    IPv6 Stateless Address Auto-configuration. This is mutually exclusive with
    ipv6-address-generation.

  • gateway4, gateway6 (scalar)

    Deprecated, see Default routes.
    Set default gateway for IPv4/6, for manual address configuration. This
    requires setting addresses too. Gateway IPs must be in a form
    recognized by inet_pton(3). There should only be a single gateway
    per IP address family set in your global config, to make it unambiguous.
    If you need multiple default routes, please define them via
    routing-policy.

    Examples

    • IPv4: gateway4: 172.16.0.1
    • IPv6: gateway6: "2001:4::1"
  • nameservers (mapping)

    Set DNS servers and search domains, for manual address configuration. There
    are two supported fields: addresses: is a list of IPv4 or IPv6 addresses
    similar to gateway*, and search: is a list of search domains.

    Example:

    ethernets:
      id0:
        [...]
        nameservers:
          search: [lab, home]
          addresses: [8.8.8.8, "FEDC::1"]
    
  • macaddress (scalar)

    Set the device’s MAC address. The MAC address must be in the form
    “XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX”.

    Note: This will not work reliably for devices matched by name
    only and rendered by networkd, due to interactions with device
    renaming in udev. Match devices by MAC when setting MAC addresses.

    Example:

    ethernets:
      id0:
        match:
          macaddress: 52:54:00:6b:3c:58
        [...]
        macaddress: 52:54:00:6b:3c:59
    
  • mtu (scalar)

    Set the Maximum Transmission Unit for the interface. The default is 1500.
    Valid values depend on your network interface.

    Note: This will not work reliably for devices matched by name
    only and rendered by networkd, due to interactions with device
    renaming in udev. Match devices by MAC when setting MTU.

  • optional (bool)

    An optional device is not required for booting. Normally, networkd will
    wait some time for device to become configured before proceeding with
    booting. However, if a device is marked as optional, networkd will not wait
    for it. This is only supported by networkd, and the default is false.

    Example:

    ethernets:
      eth7:
        # this is plugged into a test network that is often
        # down - don't wait for it to come up during boot.
        dhcp4: true
        optional: true
    
  • optional-addresses (sequence of scalars)

    Specify types of addresses that are not required for a device to be
    considered online. This changes the behavior of backends at boot time to
    avoid waiting for addresses that are marked optional, and thus consider
    the interface as “usable” sooner. This does not disable these addresses,
    which will be brought up anyway.

    Example:

    ethernets:
      eth7:
        dhcp4: true
        dhcp6: true
        optional-addresses: [ ipv4-ll, dhcp6 ]
    
  • activation-mode (scalar) – since 0.103

    Allows specifying the management policy of the selected interface. By
    default, netplan brings up any configured interface if possible. Using the
    activation-mode setting users can override that behavior by either
    specifying manual, to hand over control over the interface state to the
    administrator or (for networkd backend only) off to force the link
    in a down state at all times. Any interface with activation-mode
    defined is implicitly considered optional.
    Supported officially as of networkd v248+.

    Example:

    ethernets:
      eth1:
        # this interface will not be put into an UP state automatically
        dhcp4: true
        activation-mode: manual
    
  • routes (sequence of mappings)

    Configure static routing for the device; see the Routing section below.

  • routing-policy (sequence of mappings)

    Configure policy routing for the device; see the Routing section below.

DHCP Overrides

Several DHCP behavior overrides are available. Most currently only have any
effect when using the networkd backend, with the exception of use-routes
and route-metric.

Overrides only have an effect if the corresponding dhcp4 or dhcp6 is
set to true.

If both dhcp4 and dhcp6 are true, the networkd backend requires
that dhcp4-overrides and dhcp6-overrides contain the same keys and
values. If the values do not match, an error will be shown and the network
configuration will not be applied.

When using the NetworkManager backend, different values may be specified for
dhcp4-overrides and dhcp6-overrides, and will be applied to the DHCP
client processes as specified in the netplan YAML.

  • dhcp4-overrides, dhcp6-overrides (mapping)

    The dhcp4-overrides and `dhcp6-override`` mappings override the
    default DHCP behavior.

    • use-dns (bool)

      Default: true. When true, the DNS servers received from the
      DHCP server will be used and take precedence over any statically
      configured ones. Currently only has an effect on the networkd
      backend.

    • use-ntp (bool)

      Default: true. When true, the NTP servers received from the
      DHCP server will be used by systemd-timesyncd and take precedence
      over any statically configured ones. Currently only has an effect on
      the networkd backend.

    • send-hostname (bool)

      Default: true. When true, the machine’s hostname will be sent
      to the DHCP server. Currently only has an effect on the networkd
      backend.

    • use-hostname (bool)

      Default: true. When true, the hostname received from the DHCP
      server will be set as the transient hostname of the system. Currently
      only has an effect on the networkd backend.

    • use-mtu (bool)

      Default: true. When true, the MTU received from the DHCP
      server will be set as the MTU of the network interface. When false,
      the MTU advertised by the DHCP server will be ignored. Currently only
      has an effect on the networkd backend.

    • hostname (scalar)

      Use this value for the hostname which is sent to the DHCP server,
      instead of machine’s hostname. Currently only has an effect on the
      networkd backend.

    • use-routes (bool)

      Default: true. When true, the routes received from the DHCP
      server will be installed in the routing table normally. When set to
      false, routes from the DHCP server will be ignored: in this case,
      the user is responsible for adding static routes if necessary for
      correct network operation. This allows users to avoid installing a
      default gateway for interfaces configured via DHCP. Available for
      both the networkd and NetworkManager backends.

    • route-metric (scalar)

      Use this value for default metric for automatically-added routes.
      Use this to prioritize routes for devices by setting a lower metric
      on a preferred interface. Available for both the networkd and
      NetworkManager backends.

    • use-domains (scalar) – since 0.98

      Takes a boolean, or the special value “route”. When true, the domain
      name received from the DHCP server will be used as DNS search domain
      over this link, similar to the effect of the Domains= setting. If set
      to “route”, the domain name received from the DHCP server will be
      used for routing DNS queries only, but not for searching, similar to
      the effect of the Domains= setting when the argument is prefixed with
      “~”.

      Requires feature: dhcp-use-domains

Routing

Complex routing is possible with netplan. Standard static routes as well
as policy routing using routing tables are supported via the networkd
backend.

These options are available for all types of interfaces.

Default routes

The most common need for routing concerns the definition of default routes to
reach the wider Internet. Those default routes can only defined once per IP
family and routing table. A typical example would look like the following:

eth0:
  [...]
  routes:
    - to: default # could be 0/0 or 0.0.0.0/0 optionally
      via: 10.0.0.1
      metric: 100
      on-link: true
    - to: default # could be ::/0 optionally
      via: cf02:de:ad:be:ef::2
eth1:
  [...]
  routes:
    - to: default
      via: 172.134.67.1
      metric: 100
      on-link: true
      # Not on the main routing table,
      # does not conflict with the eth0 default route
      table: 76
  • routes (mapping)

    The routes block defines standard static routes for an interface.
    At least to must be specified. If type is local or nat a
    default scope of host is assumed.
    If type is unicast and no gateway (via) is given or type is
    broadcast, multicast or anycast a default scope of link
    is assumed. Otherwise, a global scope is the default setting.

    For from, to, and via, both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are
    recognized, and must be in the form addr/prefixlen or addr.

    • from (scalar)

      Set a source IP address for traffic going through the route.
      (NetworkManager: as of v1.8.0)

    • to (scalar)

      Destination address for the route.

    • via (scalar)

      Address to the gateway to use for this route.

    • on-link (bool)

      When set to “true”, specifies that the route is directly connected
      to the interface.
      (NetworkManager: as of v1.12.0 for IPv4 and v1.18.0 for IPv6)

    • metric (scalar)

      The relative priority of the route. Must be a positive integer value.

    • type (scalar)

      The type of route. Valid options are “unicast” (default), “anycast”,
      “blackhole”, “broadcast”, “local”, “multicast”, “nat”, “prohibit”,
      “throw”, “unreachable” or “xresolve”.

    • scope (scalar)

      The route scope, how wide-ranging it is to the network. Possible
      values are “global”, “link”, or “host”.

    • table (scalar)

      The table number to use for the route. In some scenarios, it may be
      useful to set routes in a separate routing table. It may also be used
      to refer to routing policy rules which also accept a table
      parameter. Allowed values are positive integers starting from 1.
      Some values are already in use to refer to specific routing tables:
      see /etc/iproute2/rt_tables.
      (NetworkManager: as of v1.10.0)

    • mtu (scalar) – since 0.101

      The MTU to be used for the route, in bytes. Must be a positive integer
      value.

    • congestion-window (scalar) – since 0.102

      The congestion window to be used for the route, represented by number
      of segments. Must be a positive integer value.

    • advertised-receive-window (scalar) – since 0.102

      The receive window to be advertised for the route, represented by
      number of segments. Must be a positive integer value.

  • routing-policy (mapping)

    The routing-policy block defines extra routing policy for a network,
    where traffic may be handled specially based on the source IP, firewall
    marking, etc.

    For from, to, both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are recognized, and
    must be in the form addr/prefixlen or addr.

    • from (scalar)

      Set a source IP address to match traffic for this policy rule.

    • to (scalar)

      Match on traffic going to the specified destination.

    • table (scalar)

      The table number to match for the route. In some scenarios, it may be
      useful to set routes in a separate routing table. It may also be used
      to refer to routes which also accept a table parameter.
      Allowed values are positive integers starting from 1.
      Some values are already in use to refer to specific routing tables:
      see /etc/iproute2/rt_tables.

    • priority (scalar)

      Specify a priority for the routing policy rule, to influence the order
      in which routing rules are processed. A higher number means lower
      priority: rules are processed in order by increasing priority number.

    • mark (scalar)

      Have this routing policy rule match on traffic that has been marked
      by the iptables firewall with this value. Allowed values are positive
      integers starting from 1.

    • type-of-service (scalar)

      Match this policy rule based on the type of service number applied to
      the traffic.

Authentication

Netplan supports advanced authentication settings for ethernet and wifi
interfaces, as well as individual wifi networks, by means of the auth block.

  • auth (mapping)

    Specifies authentication settings for a device of type ethernets:, or
    an access-points: entry on a wifis: device.

    The auth block supports the following properties:

    • key-management (scalar)

      The supported key management modes are none (no key management);
      psk (WPA with pre-shared key, common for home wifi); eap (WPA
      with EAP, common for enterprise wifi); and 802.1x (used primarily
      for wired Ethernet connections).

    • password (scalar)

      The password string for EAP, or the pre-shared key for WPA-PSK.

      The following properties can be used if key-management is eap
      or 802.1x:

    • method (scalar)

      The EAP method to use. The supported EAP methods are tls (TLS),
      peap (Protected EAP), and ttls (Tunneled TLS).

    • identity (scalar)

      The identity to use for EAP.

    • anonymous-identity (scalar)

      The identity to pass over the unencrypted channel if the chosen EAP
      method supports passing a different tunnelled identity.

    • ca-certificate (scalar)

      Path to a file with one or more trusted certificate authority (CA)
      certificates.

    • client-certificate (scalar)

      Path to a file containing the certificate to be used by the client
      during authentication.

    • client-key (scalar)

      Path to a file containing the private key corresponding to
      client-certificate.

    • client-key-password (scalar)

      Password to use to decrypt the private key specified in
      client-key if it is encrypted.

    • phase2-auth (scalar) – since 0.99

      Phase 2 authentication mechanism.

Properties for device type ethernets:

Ethernet device definitions, beyond common ones described above, also support
some additional properties that can be used for SR-IOV devices.

  • link (scalar) – since 0.99

    (SR-IOV devices only) The link property declares the device as a
    Virtual Function of the selected Physical Function device, as identified
    by the given netplan id.

    Example:

    ethernets:
      enp1: {...}
      enp1s16f1:
        link: enp1
    
  • virtual-function-count (scalar) – since 0.99

    (SR-IOV devices only) In certain special cases VFs might need to be
    configured outside of netplan. For such configurations
    virtual-function-count can be optionally used to set an explicit number of
    Virtual Functions for the given Physical Function. If unset, the default is
    to create only as many VFs as are defined in the netplan configuration. This
    should be used for special cases only.

    Requires feature: sriov

  • embedded-switch-mode (scalar) – since 0.104

    (SR-IOV devices only) Change the operational mode of the embedded switch
    of a supported SmartNIC PCI device (e.g. Mellanox ConnectX-5). Possible
    values are switchdev or legacy, if unspecified the vendor’s
    default configuration is used.

    Requires feature: eswitch-mode

  • delay-virtual-functions-rebind (bool) – since 0.104

    (SR-IOV devices only) Delay rebinding of SR-IOV virtual functions to its
    driver after changing the embedded-switch-mode setting to a later stage.
    Can be enabled when bonding/VF LAG is in use. Defaults to false.

    Requires feature: eswitch-mode

  • infiniband-mode (scalar) – since 0.105

    (InfiniBand devices only) Change the operational mode of a IPoIB device.
    Possible values are datagram or connected. If unspecified the
    kernel’s default configuration is used.

    Requires feature: infiniband

Properties for device type modems:

GSM/CDMA modem configuration is only supported for the NetworkManager
backend. systemd-networkd does not support modems.

Requires feature: modems

  • apn (scalar) – since 0.99

    Set the carrier APN (Access Point Name). This can be omitted if
    auto-config is enabled.

  • auto-config (bool) – since 0.99

    Specify whether to try and auto-configure the modem by doing a lookup of
    the carrier against the Mobile Broadband Provider database. This may not
    work for all carriers.

  • device-id (scalar) – since 0.99

    Specify the device ID (as given by the WWAN management service) of the
    modem to match. This can be found using mmcli.

  • network-id (scalar) – since 0.99

    Specify the Network ID (GSM LAI format). If this is specified, the device
    will not roam networks.

  • number (scalar) – since 0.99

    The number to dial to establish the connection to the mobile broadband
    network. (Deprecated for GSM)

  • password (scalar) – since 0.99

    Specify the password used to authenticate with the carrier network. This
    can be omitted if auto-config is enabled.

  • pin (scalar) – since 0.99

    Specify the SIM PIN to allow it to operate if a PIN is set.

  • sim-id (scalar) – since 0.99

    Specify the SIM unique identifier (as given by the WWAN management service)
    which this connection applies to. If given, the connection will apply to
    any device also allowed by device-id which contains a SIM card matching
    the given identifier.

  • sim-operator-id (scalar) – since 0.99

    Specify the MCC/MNC string (such as “310260” or “21601”) which identifies
    the carrier that this connection should apply to. If given, the connection
    will apply to any device also allowed by device-id and sim-id
    which contains a SIM card provisioned by the given operator.

  • username (scalar) – since 0.99

    Specify the username used to authenticate with the carrier network. This
    can be omitted if auto-config is enabled.

Properties for device type wifis:

Note that systemd-networkd does not natively support wifi, so you need
wpasupplicant installed if you let the networkd renderer handle wifi.

  • access-points (mapping)

    This provides pre-configured connections to NetworkManager. Note that
    users can of course select other access points/SSIDs. The keys of the
    mapping are the SSIDs, and the values are mappings with the following
    supported properties:

    • password (scalar)

      Enable WPA2 authentication and set the passphrase for it. If neither
      this nor an auth block are given, the network is assumed to be
      open. The setting

      password: "S3kr1t"
      

      is equivalent to

      auth:
        key-management: psk
        password: "S3kr1t"
      
    • mode (scalar)

      Possible access point modes are infrastructure (the default),
      ap (create an access point to which other devices can connect),
      and adhoc (peer to peer networks without a central access point).
      ap is only supported with NetworkManager.

    • bssid (scalar) – since 0.99

      If specified, directs the device to only associate with the given
      access point.

    • band (scalar) – since 0.99

      Possible bands are 5GHz (for 5GHz 802.11a) and 2.4GHz
      (for 2.4GHz 802.11), do not restrict the 802.11 frequency band of the
      network if unset (the default).

    • channel (scalar) – since 0.99

      Wireless channel to use for the Wi-Fi connection. Because channel
      numbers overlap between bands, this property takes effect only if
      the band property is also set.

    • hidden (bool) – since 0.100

      Set to true to change the SSID scan technique for connecting to
      hidden WiFi networks. Note this may have slower performance compared
      to false (the default) when connecting to publicly broadcast
      SSIDs.

  • wakeonwlan (sequence of scalars) – since 0.99

    This enables WakeOnWLan on supported devices. Not all drivers support all
    options. May be any combination of any, disconnect, magic_pkt,
    gtk_rekey_failure, eap_identity_req, four_way_handshake,
    rfkill_release or tcp (NetworkManager only). Or the exclusive
    default flag (the default).

  • regulatory-domain (scalar) – since 0.105

    This can be used to define the radio’s regulatory domain, to make use of
    additional WiFi channels outside the “world domain”. Takes an ISO /
    IEC 3166 country code (like GB) or 00 to reset to the “world domain”.
    See wireless-regdb
    for available values.

    Requires dependency: iw, if it is to be used outside the networkd
    (wpa_supplicant) backend.

Properties for device type bridges:

  • interfaces (sequence of scalars)

    All devices matching this ID list will be added to the bridge. This may
    be an empty list, in which case the bridge will be brought online with
    no member interfaces.

    Example:

    ethernets:
      switchports:
        match: {name: "enp2*"}
    [...]
    bridges:
      br0:
        interfaces: [switchports]
    
  • parameters (mapping)

    Customization parameters for special bridging options. Time intervals
    may need to be expressed as a number of seconds or milliseconds: the
    default value type is specified below. If necessary, time intervals can
    be qualified using a time suffix (such as “s” for seconds, “ms” for
    milliseconds) to allow for more control over its behavior.

    • ageing-time (scalar)

      Set the period of time to keep a MAC address in the forwarding
      database after a packet is received. This maps to the AgeingTimeSec=
      property when the networkd renderer is used. If no time suffix is
      specified, the value will be interpreted as seconds.

    • priority (scalar)

      Set the priority value for the bridge. This value should be a
      number between 0 and 65535. Lower values mean higher
      priority. The bridge with the higher priority will be elected as
      the root bridge.

    • port-priority (scalar)

      Set the port priority to . The priority value is
      a number between 0 and 63. This metric is used in the
      designated port and root port selection algorithms.

    • forward-delay (scalar)

      Specify the period of time the bridge will remain in Listening and
      Learning states before getting to the Forwarding state. This field
      maps to the ForwardDelaySec= property for the networkd renderer.
      If no time suffix is specified, the value will be interpreted as
      seconds.

    • hello-time (scalar)

      Specify the interval between two hello packets being sent out from
      the root and designated bridges. Hello packets communicate
      information about the network topology. When the networkd renderer
      is used, this maps to the HelloTimeSec= property. If no time suffix
      is specified, the value will be interpreted as seconds.

    • max-age (scalar)

      Set the maximum age of a hello packet. If the last hello packet is
      older than that value, the bridge will attempt to become the root
      bridge. This maps to the MaxAgeSec= property when the networkd
      renderer is used. If no time suffix is specified, the value will be
      interpreted as seconds.

    • path-cost (scalar)

      Set the cost of a path on the bridge. Faster interfaces should have
      a lower cost. This allows a finer control on the network topology
      so that the fastest paths are available whenever possible.

    • stp (bool)

      Define whether the bridge should use Spanning Tree Protocol. The
      default value is “true”, which means that Spanning Tree should be
      used.

Properties for device type bonds:

  • interfaces (sequence of scalars)

    All devices matching this ID list will be added to the bond.

    Example:

    ethernets:
      switchports:
        match: {name: "enp2*"}
    [...]
    bonds:
      bond0:
        interfaces: [switchports]
    
  • parameters (mapping)

    Customization parameters for special bonding options. Time intervals
    may need to be expressed as a number of seconds or milliseconds: the
    default value type is specified below. If necessary, time intervals can
    be qualified using a time suffix (such as “s” for seconds, “ms” for
    milliseconds) to allow for more control over its behavior.

    • mode (scalar)

      Set the bonding mode used for the interfaces. The default is
      balance-rr (round robin). Possible values are balance-rr,
      active-backup, balance-xor, broadcast, 802.3ad,
      balance-tlb, and balance-alb.
      For Open vSwitch active-backup and the additional modes
      balance-tcp and balance-slb are supported.

    • lacp-rate (scalar)

      Set the rate at which LACPDUs are transmitted. This is only useful
      in 802.3ad mode. Possible values are slow (30 seconds, default),
      and fast (every second).

    • mii-monitor-interval (scalar)

      Specifies the interval for MII monitoring (verifying if an interface
      of the bond has carrier). The default is 0; which disables MII
      monitoring. This is equivalent to the MIIMonitorSec= field for the
      networkd backend. If no time suffix is specified, the value will be
      interpreted as milliseconds.

    • min-links (scalar)

      The minimum number of links up in a bond to consider the bond
      interface to be up.

    • transmit-hash-policy (scalar)

      Specifies the transmit hash policy for the selection of slaves. This
      is only useful in balance-xor, 802.3ad and balance-tlb modes.
      Possible values are layer2, layer3+4, layer2+3,
      encap2+3, and encap3+4.

    • ad-select (scalar)

      Set the aggregation selection mode. Possible values are stable,
      bandwidth, and count. This option is only used in 802.3ad
      mode.

    • all-slaves-active (bool)

      If the bond should drop duplicate frames received on inactive ports,
      set this option to false. If they should be delivered, set this
      option to true. The default value is false, and is the desirable
      behavior in most situations.

    • arp-interval (scalar)

      Set the interval value for how frequently ARP link monitoring should
      happen. The default value is 0, which disables ARP monitoring.
      For the networkd backend, this maps to the ARPIntervalSec= property.
      If no time suffix is specified, the value will be interpreted as
      milliseconds.

    • arp-ip-targets (sequence of scalars)

      IPs of other hosts on the link which should be sent ARP requests in
      order to validate that a slave is up. This option is only used when
      arp-interval is set to a value other than 0. At least one IP
      address must be given for ARP link monitoring to function. Only IPv4
      addresses are supported. You can specify up to 16 IP addresses. The
      default value is an empty list.

    • arp-validate (scalar)

      Configure how ARP replies are to be validated when using ARP link
      monitoring. Possible values are none, active, backup,
      and all.

    • arp-all-targets (scalar)

      Specify whether to use any ARP IP target being up as sufficient for
      a slave to be considered up; or if all the targets must be up. This
      is only used for active-backup mode when arp-validate is
      enabled. Possible values are any and all.

    • up-delay (scalar)

      Specify the delay before enabling a link once the link is physically
      up. The default value is 0. This maps to the UpDelaySec= property
      for the networkd renderer. This option is only valid for the miimon
      link monitor. If no time suffix is specified, the value will be
      interpreted as milliseconds.

    • down-delay (scalar)

      Specify the delay before disabling a link once the link has been
      lost. The default value is 0. This maps to the DownDelaySec=
      property for the networkd renderer. This option is only valid for the
      miimon link monitor. If no time suffix is specified, the value will
      be interpreted as milliseconds.

    • fail-over-mac-policy (scalar)

      Set whether to set all slaves to the same MAC address when adding
      them to the bond, or how else the system should handle MAC addresses.
      The possible values are none, active, and follow.

    • gratuitous-arp (scalar)

      Specify how many ARP packets to send after failover. Once a link is
      up on a new slave, a notification is sent and possibly repeated if
      this value is set to a number greater than 1. The default value
      is 1 and valid values are between 1 and 255. This only
      affects active-backup mode.

      For historical reasons, the misspelling gratuitious-arp is also
      accepted and has the same function.

    • packets-per-slave (scalar)

      In balance-rr mode, specifies the number of packets to transmit
      on a slave before switching to the next. When this value is set to
      0, slaves are chosen at random. Allowable values are between
      0 and 65535. The default value is 1. This setting is
      only used in balance-rr mode.

    • primary-reselect-policy (scalar)

      Set the reselection policy for the primary slave. On failure of the
      active slave, the system will use this policy to decide how the new
      active slave will be chosen and how recovery will be handled. The
      possible values are always, better, and failure.

    • resend-igmp (scalar)

      In modes balance-rr, active-backup, balance-tlb and
      balance-alb, a failover can switch IGMP traffic from one
      slave to another.

      This parameter specifies how many IGMP membership reports
      are issued on a failover event. Values range from 0 to 255. 0
      disables sending membership reports. Otherwise, the first
      membership report is sent on failover and subsequent reports
      are sent at 200ms intervals.

    • learn-packet-interval (scalar)

      Specify the interval between sending learning packets to
      each slave. The value range is between 1 and 0x7fffffff.
      The default value is 1. This option only affects balance-tlb
      and balance-alb modes. Using the networkd renderer, this field
      maps to the LearnPacketIntervalSec= property. If no time suffix is
      specified, the value will be interpreted as seconds.

    • primary (scalar)

      Specify a device to be used as a primary slave, or preferred device
      to use as a slave for the bond (i.e. the preferred device to send
      data through), whenever it is available. This only affects
      active-backup, balance-alb, and balance-tlb modes.

Properties for device type tunnels:

Tunnels allow traffic to pass as if it was between systems on the same local
network, although systems may be far from each other but reachable via the
Internet. They may be used to support IPv6 traffic on a network where the ISP
does not provide the service, or to extend and “connect” separate local
networks. Please see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunneling_protocol for
more general information about tunnels.

  • mode (scalar)

    Defines the tunnel mode. Valid options are sit, gre, ip6gre,
    ipip, ipip6, ip6ip6, vti, vti6 and wireguard.
    Additionally, the networkd backend also supports gretap and
    ip6gretap modes.
    In addition, the NetworkManager backend supports isatap tunnels.

  • local (scalar)

    Defines the address of the local endpoint of the tunnel.

  • remote (scalar)

    Defines the address of the remote endpoint of the tunnel.

  • ttl (scalar) – since 0.103

    Defines the TTL of the tunnel.

  • key (scalar or mapping)

    Define keys to use for the tunnel. The key can be a number or a dotted
    quad (an IPv4 address). For wireguard it can be a base64-encoded
    private key or (as of networkd v242+) an absolute path to a file,
    containing the private key (since 0.100).
    It is used for identification of IP transforms. This is only required
    for vti and vti6 when using the networkd backend.

    This field may be used as a scalar (meaning that a single key is
    specified and to be used for input, output and private key), or as a
    mapping, where you can further specify input/output/private.

    • input (scalar)

      The input key for the tunnel

    • output (scalar)

      The output key for the tunnel

    • private (scalar) – since 0.100

      A base64-encoded private key required for WireGuard tunnels. When the
      systemd-networkd backend (v242+) is used, this can also be an
      absolute path to a file containing the private key.

  • keys (scalar or mapping)

    Alternate name for the key field. See above.

    Examples:

    tunnels:
      tun0:
        mode: gre
        local: ...
        remote: ...
        keys:
          input: 1234
          output: 5678
    
    tunnels:
      tun0:
        mode: vti6
        local: ...
        remote: ...
        key: 59568549
    
    tunnels:
      wg0:
        mode: wireguard
        addresses: [...]
        peers:
          - keys:
              public: rlbInAj0qV69CysWPQY7KEBnKxpYCpaWqOs/dLevdWc=
              shared: /path/to/shared.key
            ...
        key: mNb7OIIXTdgW4khM7OFlzJ+UPs7lmcWHV7xjPgakMkQ=
    
    tunnels:
      wg0:
        mode: wireguard
        addresses: [...]
        peers:
          - keys:
              public: rlbInAj0qV69CysWPQY7KEBnKxpYCpaWqOs/dLevdWc=
            ...
        keys:
          private: /path/to/priv.key
    

WireGuard specific keys:

  • mark (scalar) – since 0.100

    Firewall mark for outgoing WireGuard packets from this interface,
    optional.

  • port (scalar) – since 0.100

    UDP port to listen at or auto. Optional, defaults to auto.

  • peers (sequence of mappings) – since 0.100

    A list of peers, each having keys documented below.

    Example:

    tunnels:
      wg0:
        mode: wireguard
        key: /path/to/private.key
        mark: 42
        port: 5182
        peers:
          - keys:
              public: rlbInAj0qV69CysWPQY7KEBnKxpYCpaWqOs/dLevdWc=
            allowed-ips: [0.0.0.0/0, "2001:fe:ad:de:ad:be:ef:1/24"]
            keepalive: 23
            endpoint: 1.2.3.4:5
          - keys:
              public: M9nt4YujIOmNrRmpIRTmYSfMdrpvE7u6WkG8FY8WjG4=
              shared: /some/shared.key
            allowed-ips: [10.10.10.20/24]
            keepalive: 22
            endpoint: 5.4.3.2:1
    
    • endpoint (scalar) – since 0.100

      Remote endpoint IPv4/IPv6 address or a hostname, followed by a colon
      and a port number.

    • allowed-ips (sequence of scalars) – since 0.100

      A list of IP (v4 or v6) addresses with CIDR masks from which this peer
      is allowed to send incoming traffic and to which outgoing traffic for
      this peer is directed. The catch-all 0.0.0.0/0 may be specified for
      matching all IPv4 addresses, and ::/0 may be specified for matching
      all IPv6 addresses.

    • keepalive (scalar) – since 0.100

      An interval in seconds, between 1 and 65535 inclusive, of how often to
      send an authenticated empty packet to the peer for the purpose of
      keeping a stateful firewall or NAT mapping valid persistently. Optional.

    • keys (mapping) – since 0.100

      Define keys to use for the WireGuard peers.

      This field can be used as a mapping, where you can further specify the
      public and shared keys.

      • public (scalar) – since 0.100

        A base64-encoded public key, required for WireGuard peers.

      • shared (scalar) – since 0.100

        A base64-encoded preshared key. Optional for WireGuard peers.
        When the systemd-networkd backend (v242+) is used, this can
        also be an absolute path to a file containing the preshared key.

Properties for device type vlans:

  • id (scalar)

    VLAN ID, a number between 0 and 4094.

  • link (scalar)

    netplan ID of the underlying device definition on which this VLAN gets
    created.

Example:

ethernets:
  eno1: {...}
vlans:
  en-intra:
    id: 1
    link: eno1
    dhcp4: yes
  en-vpn:
    id: 2
    link: eno1
    addresses: [...]

Properties for device type nm-devices:

The nm-devices device type is for internal use only and should not be used in
normal configuration files. It enables a fallback mode for unsupported settings,
using the passthrough mapping.

Backend-specific configuration parameters

In addition to the other fields available to configure interfaces, some
backends may require to record some of their own parameters in netplan,
especially if the netplan definitions are generated automatically by the
consumer of that backend. Currently, this is only used with NetworkManager.

  • networkmanager (mapping) – since 0.99

    Keeps the NetworkManager-specific configuration parameters used by the
    daemon to recognize connections.

    • name (scalar) – since 0.99

      Set the display name for the connection.

    • uuid (scalar) – since 0.99

      Defines the UUID (unique identifier) for this connection, as
      generated by NetworkManager itself.

    • stable-id (scalar) – since 0.99

      Defines the stable ID (a different form of a connection name) used
      by NetworkManager in case the name of the connection might otherwise
      change, such as when sharing connections between users.

    • device (scalar) – since 0.99

      Defines the interface name for which this connection applies.

    • passthrough (mapping) – since 0.102

      Can be used as a fallback mechanism to missing keyfile settings.

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