Snap a Python application


Duration: 1:00

Creating a snap doesn’t have to mean writing a lot of code from scratch. There are already plenty of applications that would benefit from being available as a snap. In this tutorial we are going to snap a network utility called httpstat, which is written in Python. httpstat is a visualisation tool for curl, which displays useful information in a clear and easy to read way.

The screenshot above shows the output of httpstat when we run it on httpstat shows how much time it took for each individual stage of the page transfer, in this case:

  • DNS Lookup
  • TCP Connection
  • SSL Handshake
  • Server Processing
  • Content Transfer

A system administrator would want to reduce those times as much as possible. For example, they could switch to a different server location, get a faster server or optimise the server software so that it delivers the content much faster. In this specific example, we actually learn that our connection was served by a reverse proxy (shown as, which guarantees a very short time in server processing while the web page content remains unchanged.

What you’ll learn

  • How to package a Python project with snapcraft
  • How to pull source code from a specific git tag
  • How to make a snap that is strictly confined

What you’ll need

  • Ubuntu 16.04 or newer
  • Basic knowledge of the Linux command line
  • Some familiarity with snaps would help! (you can follow these two introductory tutorials: “basic snap usage” and “create your first snap”)

[note type="survey]

  • How will you use this tutorial? - Only read through it - Read it and complete the exercises
  • What is your current level of experience? - Novice - Intermediate - Proficient

Get familiar with the project

Duration: 2:00

This project is a Python application. It has a very simple project layout with an installation and test script.

Introspect the code

To be able to create the snap, we should also be a little familiar with the code, how it gets built and how it is run.

We are going to use git to fetch the source code. Install it with:

sudo apt update
sudo apt install git

Then, let’s fetch the source from its repository:

git clone

If we take a look inside the directory

tree httpstat

…we can see that it is a flat file structure with only a few files:

├── Makefile
├── screenshot.png

For now, the two interesting files in that directory are: - corresponding to the main (and only!) source file, containing the code. You can execute it directly once it’s made executable. -, which is a standard Python installation script file. Running setup will build and install the project on the target host. The good news is that snapcraft has full support for projects following this best practice for Python.

You will note that this project has no requirements.txt file, meaning that there are no non-standard library modules used which would need to be pulled in at build time. If that were the case, snapcraft would have handled this for you, pulling the correct dependencies via pip, itself.

Do not hesitate to open the files to get familiar with them. Once you are done, you can remove that httpstat directory.

Craft a working snap in devmode

Duration: 9:00

Now that we are familiar with the code we are going to snap, we can start doing some proper work!

Make a scaffold

We are going to create a directory for the snapcraft project. We will pull the main source code directly from github each time we build the snap. Let’s use snapcraft to scaffold an initial configuration file and then build on that to create the snap for httpstat.

Create the directory:

mkdir httpstat-snap
cd httpstat-snap

Then we can generate a snapcraft project there:

snapcraft init

You will hopefully receive the message:

Created snap/snapcraft.yaml.
Edit the file to your liking or run `snapcraft` to get started

The init option has created a template snap/snapcraft.yaml. The next step is to fill that with useful information!

Add snapcraft.yaml metadata

Here is the first part of the httpstat snapcraft.yaml. Let’s add some metadata to it which describes our snap and the project. Change your file to match the following:

name: httpstat
version: '1.1.3'
summary: Curl statistics made simple
description: |
    httpstat is a utility that analyses show fast is a website
    when you are trying to connect to it.
    This utility is particularly useful to Web administrators.
base: core
grade: stable
confinement: devmode

First, for the a name, we use httpstat.

Second, we select a version. Instead of using the latest development version that might not work or might happen to be broken momentarily, you can pick and choose the stable branch or the latest tagged version from the repository.


The tag v1.1.3 will do!

Third and fourth, we add a summary and a description from text we got from the httpstat GitHub page.

Fifth, we select a grade. That would be either devel (for development) or stable. This snap is going to land in the stable channel in the store.

Sixth, we select the confinement of the snap. As for other snaps, we are going to set it first as devmode before turning it to strict confinement later.

Add a python part

This simple application is going to be made of a single part, referencing the GitHub source repository. We also know that we want to pull a certain revision (a git tag) and that the project is made with Python.

This translates into:

    source-tag: v1.1.3
    plugin: python

And that’s it! The parts section provides instructions as to how to process the httpstat target we added.


We first specify the git URL for the source (note that it ends with .git) and then the tag version we want. The git URL is the same one that appears if you click on the Clone or download green button on the GitHub. More information on the source is available via the snapcraft source command.

We then specify that we want to use the plugin: python, which is a plugin that performs python build and python install. The default behavior is to build a Python 3.x program. The python-version: element can be specified to set the python version to 2. As we discussed previously, this project doesn’t have a requirements.txt file, so no dependencies will be pulled in by snapcraft. Otherwise, this would have been done conveniently for you, in a relocatable fashion! Note that snapcraft help python will give you way more information about the Python plugin:

The python plugin can be used for python 2 or 3 based parts.

It can be used for python projects where you would want to do:

    - import python modules with a requirements.txt
    - build a python project that has a
    - install packages straight from pip

This plugin uses the common plugin keywords as well as those for "sources".
For more information check the 'plugins' topic for the former and the
'sources' topic for the latter.

Additionally, this plugin uses the following plugin-specific keywords:

    - requirements:
      Path to a requirements.txt file
    - constraints:
      Path to a constraints file
    - process-dependency-links:
      (bool; default: false)
      Enable the processing of dependency links.
    - python-packages:
      A list of dependencies to get from PyPi
    - python-version:
      (string; default: python3)
      The python version to use. Valid options are: python2 and python3

Although we are not finished with the metadata yet (we haven’t exposed any commands), we can try to build it at this stage to make sure that we have the basic definition correct.

Run the command:

snapcraft prime

…and snapcraft will start building the snap. You will get a lot of feedback so you can see the whole process:

Preparing to pull httpstat                                              
Hit xenial InRelease                                                      
Get:1 xenial InRelease [11.5 kB]                                              
Fetched 6208 kB in 0s (0 B/s)                                                                              
Pulling httpstat
Cloning in '<…>/parts/httpstat/src'...
remote: Counting objects: 251, done.
remote: Total 251 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 251
Réception d'objets: 100% (251/251), 330.03 KiB | 0 bytes/s, fait.
Résolution des deltas: 100% (138/138), fait.
Vérification de la connectivité... fait.
Note: checking out '0f0e653309982178302ec1d5023bda2de047a72d'.

You are in 'detached HEAD' state. You can look around, make experimental
changes and commit them, and you can discard any commits you make in this
state without impacting any branches by performing another checkout.

If you want to create a new branch to retain commits you create, you may
do so (now or later) by using -b with the checkout command again. Example:

  git checkout -b <new-branch-name>

Collecting pip
  Using cached pip-9.0.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl
  Saved ./parts/httpstat/packages/pip-9.0.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting setuptools
  Downloading setuptools-34.2.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl (389kB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 399kB 2.2MB/s
  Saved ./parts/httpstat/packages/setuptools-34.2.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Installing collected packages: pip, six, appdirs, pyparsing, packaging, setuptools, wheel
Successfully installed appdirs packaging pip-8.1.1 pyparsing-2.0.3 setuptools-20.7.0 six-1.10.0 wheel-0.29.0
pip download --disable-pip-version-check --dest <…>/parts/httpstat/packages .
Processing <…>/step3/parts/httpstat/src
  Link is a directory, ignoring download_dir
Successfully downloaded httpstat
Preparing to build httpstat
Building httpstat
Collecting pip
  Saved /tmp/tmpmj_yh4e1/pip-9.0.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Collecting setuptools
  Saved /tmp/tmpmj_yh4e1/setuptools-34.2.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
Successfully installed appdirs-1.4.0 packaging-16.8 pip-9.0.1 pyparsing-2.1.10 setuptools-34.2.0 six-1.10.0 wheel-0.29.0
pip wheel --disable-pip-version-check --no-index --find-links <…>/step3/parts/httpstat/packages --wheel-dir /tmp/tmpah1cbkq9 .
Processing <…>/step3/parts/httpstat/build
Building wheels for collected packages: httpstat
  Running bdist_wheel for httpstat ... done
  Stored in directory: /tmp/tmpah1cbkq9
Successfully built httpstat
DEPRECATION: The default format will switch to columns in the future. You can use --format=(legacy|columns) (or define a format=(legacy|columns) in your pip.conf under the [list] section) to disable this warning.
pip install --user --no-compile --disable-pip-version-check --no-index --find-links <…>/step3/parts/httpstat/packages httpstat --no-deps --upgrade
Collecting httpstat
Installing collected packages: httpstat
Successfully installed httpstat-1.1.3
Staging httpstat
Priming httpstat

Success! (Well, as long as you don’t have a typo in your yaml file ;)). Reading the log, you can see that the python plugin did some heavy lifting for you:

  • Installing pip, setuptools, and a lot of other tools (from the distribution and pip)
  • Putting the python3 binaries and standard library as part of the snap
  • Running which installs the httpstat binary. This one finally ends up as prime/bin/httpstat.

[note type=“positive”]
Note: Do not hesitate to look at the content of the prime/ directory. This is what will be in your final snap. You will really appreciate all the work snapcraft did for you there!

Add the httpstat command

Ok, our httpstat project is being built, but we are missing something: a command to run it! Although the software is being built, you have to specify exactly what commands the snap will ‘expose’.

Add in your snapcraft.yaml, between the top metadata and the parts: paragraph:

    command: httpstat

We specify that the users will be running an executable named httpstat via the command: argument. We name that command httpstat itself.

That’s it? Yes it is!

[note type=“positive”]
If your application exposes more than one command, you just need to add more command: <name>
lines to this part of the snapcraft.yaml file and they will also be exposed.

Now lets build a working snap. Once again we run:

snapcraft prime

This time, the command can skip over the parts it has already done previously::

Skipping pull httpstat (already ran)
Skipping build httpstat (already ran)
Skipping stage httpstat (already ran)
Skipping prime httpstat (already ran)

And we’re done! Let’s ship it.

Oh wait! Testing? Hum maybe… but let’s add a new section for this.

[note type=“positive”]
Note: You will notice in the generated command-httpstat.wrapper file in the prime/ directory that snapcraft ‘python’ plugin helped you by exporting $PYTHONUSERBASE and $PYTHONHOME to reference your local Python installation. Nifty!

Polishing our snap (or rather, making it work ;))

Ok, let’s see what this gets us when we try the snap on our system. First of all we need to activate the snap - we will use the temporary ‘try’ mode rather than a full install

sudo snap try --devmode prime/

Now we can try to run the command we exposed. Let’s check the help!

httpstat --help

And we can see it works fine:

Usage: httpstat URL [CURL_OPTIONS]
       httpstat -h | --help
       httpstat --version

  URL     url to request, could be with or without `http(s)://` prefix

  CURL_OPTIONS  any curl supported options, except for -w -D -o -S -s,
                which are already used internally.
  -h --help     show this screen.
  --version     show version.

  HTTPSTAT_SHOW_BODY    By default httpstat will write response body
                        in a tempfile, but you can let it print out by setting
                        this variable to `true`.
  HTTPSTAT_SHOW_SPEED   set to `true` to show download and upload speed.

Looks great! Let’s try now to get some statistics on



Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/snap/httpstat/x1/bin/httpstat", line 11, in <module>
  File "/snap/httpstat/x1/lib/python3.5/site-packages/", line 155, in main
    p = subprocess.Popen(cmd, stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE, env=cmd_env)
  File "/snap/httpstat/x1/usr/lib/python3.5/", line 947, in __init__
    restore_signals, start_new_session)
  File "/snap/httpstat/x1/usr/lib/python3.5/", line 1551, in _execute_child
    raise child_exception_type(errno_num, err_msg)
FileNotFoundError: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: 'curl'

Ah, not so good…

The error message is helpful though: No such file or directory: ‘curl’. Indeed, curl is a separate binary, not part of httpstat or an imported Python module, and so we aren’t shipping it as part of our snap. The curl package is available in the Ubuntu apt repositories though, so we can use the stage-packages functionality of snapcraft in order to re-use this available binary package:

    stage-packages: [curl]

Here, we only add one package to the stage-packages list: curl.

[note type=“negative”]
Important: The error messages may be long and perhaps confusing. It is important to skim the whole error message for the interesting information. In the above case, we learn that the error produced a Python traceback (a trace of the instructions from start to the point of the error). At the end of the traceback, we get the important hint: FileNotFoundError: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: 'curl'. It could not find curl, one of the most common utilities for downloading content from websites. Every snap is considered “empty” or disconnected unless we explicitly add commands that are needed.

Let’s try again!

As we changed a part definition, we should clean out the cached stages first:

snapcraft clean

Which should confirm that the various directories are cleaned up:

Cleaning up priming area
Cleaning up staging area
Cleaning up parts directory

Now we can again prime the snap

snapcraft prime

…and activate it…

sudo snap try --devmode prime/

…and cross our fingers and run the command…



HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Thu, 6 Jul 2017 14:44:40 GMT
Server: gunicorn/17.5
Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=15768000
Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
Age: 173
Content-Length: 34074
X-Cache: HIT from
X-Cache-Lookup: HIT from
Via: 1.0 (squid/2.7.STABLE7)
Vary: Accept-Encoding

Body stored in: /tmp/tmp3m7quqre

  DNS Lookup   TCP Connection   SSL Handshake   Server Processing   Content Transfer
[    61ms    |      17ms      |     230ms     |       20ms        |       38ms       ]
             |                |               |                   |                  |
    namelookup:61ms           |               |                   |                  |
                        connect:78ms          |                   |                  |
                                    pretransfer:308ms             |                  |
                                                      starttransfer:328ms            |

Success! Before shipping our snap, to be able to publish in the stable channel, we need to turn confinement on though. But that’s for the next step, we have worked enough here!

Let’s confine everything!

Duration: 4:00

Ok, the title may be a little bit catchy. Let’s start by confining this snap alone :slight_smile:

[note type=“positive”]
Lost or starting from here?

Check or download here to see what your current directory should look like.

Testing our current snap without modifying it

In other tutorials, we directly edited snapcraft.yaml and replaced confinement: devmode by strict, rebuilt the snap and so on. We will need to do that for the final snap. However, we can bypass this by now by installing our devmode snap with strict confinement.

How to do this? Quite easily:

$ sudo snap try --jailmode prime/
httpstat 1.1.3 mounted from <…>/prime

Using --jailmode forces any snap needing devmode to be fully confined.

Let’s give this a shot:


but this time we get:

curl -w <output-format> -D <tempfile> -o <tempfile> -s -S
curl error: curl: (6) Could not resolve host:

We are almost there, but as you saw, this didn’t work! Indeed, the snap does not have access to the Internet anymore because of the strict confinement. We need to declare the type of access we need (and no more than that - for example, the httpstat should still not have any access to the files in our home directory).

[note type=“negative”]
Important: The error message was curl error: curl: (6) Couldn't resolve host ''. When trying to make an Internet connection, an app needs to first resolve the name of the server into the IP address. When there is no access to the Internet, the resolve (the first step towards a network connection) will not work, thus this error. A snap with confinement: strict does not have any access to the Internet, unless explicitly allowed.

Enabling access to network

To allow networking access to a snap, we need to specify that networking is OK for this snap. network is an interface in snaps and it is one of the many supported interfaces for snaps. There is the notion of plugs (provider of resource) and slots (consumer of resource). For most cases, like this one here, we need a plug, a plug for network.

Let’s edit our snapcraft.yaml and declare for our httpstat command this access:

    command: httpstat
    plugs: [network]

While we are at it and before we rebuild our snap, let’s change the confinement: line to set it as strict:

confinement: strict

and let’s build it all:

$ snapcraft
Skipping pull httpstat (already ran)
Skipping build httpstat (already ran)
Skipping stage httpstat (already ran)
Skipping prime httpstat (already ran)
Snapping 'httpstat' -                                                                        
Snapped httpstat_1.1.3_amd64.snap

[note type=“negative”]
Note: plugs are not required or supported outside of strict confinement - a classic snap which declares plugs will fail automatic checks if it is submitted to the store.

Final testing

It’s time to install the final snap, which is now confined, and retest it (remember to use --dangerous, as we are installing a local snap, and not one signed from the store):

$ snap install --dangerous httpstat_1.1.3_amd64.snap
httpstat 1.1.3 installed
$ httpstat

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:51:05 GMT
Server: gunicorn/17.5
Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=15768000
Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
Age: 189
X-Cache: HIT from
X-Cache-Lookup: HIT from
Via: 1.1 (squid/3.5.12)
Vary: Accept-Encoding
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

Body stored in: /tmp/tmpvnlglnz3

  DNS Lookup   TCP Connection   SSL Handshake   Server Processing   Content Transfer
[    12ms    |      25ms      |     240ms     |       21ms        |       40ms       ]
             |                |               |                   |                  |
    namelookup:12ms           |               |                   |                  |
                        connect:37ms          |                   |                  |
                                    pretransfer:277ms             |                  |
                                                      starttransfer:298ms            |

And that’s it! The snap, with strict confinement, works!

That’s all folks!

Duration: 1:00

There we go, that was quite easy wasn’t it?

[note type=“positive”]
Final code

Your final code directory should now look like this. Do not hesitate to download and build your snap from it if you only read it through!

You should now have a complete Python snap ready to be uploaded to the store, fully confined with access to the network.

You now know how to snap a simple Python application, the available options and handy features available to make life easier! You also have some idea about how to reference external programs, branching them at specific tags. Finally, looking at the output of our program, we were able to understand the secure interfaces it requires. This allowed us to specify plugs and turn on confinement.

Next steps

  • Now that you have packaged an application, you can learn how to snap a service, discover a more iterative process on debugging confinement issues and more, on our unique build a nodejs service tutorial. Chuck Norris also stars, how can you resist? :slight_smile:
  • Learn advanced techniques on how to use your snap system by following our other tutorials!
  • Join the community on the snapcraft forum.

Further reading