What are ROCKs?
Ordinary software packages can often be installed in a variety of different types of environments that satisfy the given packaging system. However, these environments can be quite varied, such as including versions of language runtimes, system libraries, and other library dependencies that the software was not well tested with.
Docker containers address this by encapsulating both the software and the surrounding environment. Instead of installing and maintaining a collection of software packages, the user installs and maintains a single container built from a dedicated OS image providing the desired software. The user relies on the provider of the Docker image to perform the necessary software testing and maintenance updates. There is a rich ecosystem of Docker container providers thanks to how easy Docker makes it to create containers. Unfortunately, with that freedom and flexibility invariably comes unreliability of maintenance and inconsistency of implementation.
The Open Container Initiative (OCI) establishes standards for constructing Docker images that can be reliably installed across a variety of compliant host environments. Ubuntu’s registry of OCI containers for Kubernetes is named ROCKs.
Ubuntu’s LTS Docker Image Portfolio provides OCI-compliant images that receive stable security updates and predictable software updates, thus assuring consistency in both maintenance schedule and operational interfaces for the underlying software your software builds on.
Container Creation and Deletion
Over the course of this tutorial we’ll explore deriving a customized Apache container, and then networking in a Postgres container backend for it. By the end you’ll have a working knowledge of how to set up a container-based environment using Canonical’s ROCK images.
First the absolute basics. Let’s spin up a single container providing the Apache2 web server software:
$ sudo apt-get update $ sudo apt-get -y install docker.io $ sudo docker run -d --name my-apache2-container -p 8080:80 ubuntu/apache2:2.4-22.04_beta Unable to find image 'ubuntu/apache2:2.4-22.04_beta' locally 2.4-22.04_beta: Pulling from ubuntu/apache2 13c61b50dd15: Pull complete 34dadde438e6: Pull complete d8e11cec95e6: Pull complete Digest: sha256:11647ce68a130540150dfebbb755ee79c908103fafbf805074eb6513e6b9df83 Status: Downloaded newer image for ubuntu/apache2:2.4-22.04_beta 4031e6ed24a6e08185efd1c60e7df50f8f60c21ed9961c858ca0cb6bb300a72a
This container, named
my-apache2-container runs in an Ubuntu 22.04 LTS environment and can be accessed via local port 8080. Load the website up in your local web browser:
$ firefox http://localhost:8080
If you don’t have firefox handy,
curl can be used instead:
$ curl -s http://localhost:8080 | grep "<title>" <title>Apache2 Ubuntu Default Page: It works</title>
The run command had a number of parameters to it. The Usage section of Ubuntu’s Docker hub page for Apache2 has a table with an overview of parameters specific to the image, and Docker itself has a formal reference of all available parameters, but lets go over what we’re doing in this particular case:
$ sudo docker run -d --name my-apache2-container -e TZ=UTC -p 8080:80 ubuntu/apache2:2.4-22.04_beta
-d parameter causes the container to be detached so it runs in the background. If you omit this, then you’ll want to use a different terminal window for interacting with the container. The
--name parameter allows you to use a defined name; if it’s omitted you can still reference the container by its Docker id. The
-e option lets you set environment variables used when creating the container; in this case we’re just setting the timezone (
TZ) to universal time (
-p parameter allows us to map port 80 of the container to 8080 on localhost, so we can reference the service as
http://localhost:8080. The last parameter indicates what software image we want.
A variety of other software images are provided on Ubuntu’s Docker Hub, including documentation of supported customization parameters and debugging tips. This lists the different major/minor versions of each piece of software, packaged on top of different Ubuntu LTS releases. So for example, in specifying our requested image as
ubuntu/apache2:2.4-22.04_beta we used Apache2 version 2.4 running on a Ubuntu 22.04 environment.
Notice that the image version we requested has
_beta appended to it. This is called a Channel Tag. Like most software, Apache2 provides incremental releases numbered like 2.4.51, 2.4.52, and 2.4.53. Some of these releases are strictly bugfix-only, or even just CVE security fixes; others may include new features or other improvements. If we think of the series of these incremental releases for Apache2 2.4 on Ubuntu 22.04 as running in a Channel, the Channel Tags point to the newest incremental release that’s been confirmed to the given level of stability. So, if a new incremental release 2.4.54 becomes available,
ubuntu/apache2:2.4-22.04_edge images would be updated to that version rapidly, then
ubuntu/apache2:2.4-22.04_beta once it’s received some basic testing; eventually, if no problems are found, it will also be available in
ubuntu/apache2:2.4-22.04_candidate and then in
ubuntu/apache2:2.4-22.04_stable once it’s validated as completely safe.
For convenience there’s also a
latest tag and an
edge tag which are handy for experimentation or where you don’t care what version is used and just want the newest available. For example, to launch the latest version of Nginx, we can do so as before, but specifying
latest instead of the version:
$ sudo docker run -d --name my-nginx-container -e TZ=UTC -p 9080:80 ubuntu/nginx:latest 4dac8d77645d7ed695bdcbeb3409a8eda942393067dad49e4ef3b8b1bdc5d584 $ curl -s http://localhost:9080 | grep "<title>" <title>Welcome to nginx!</title>
We’ve also changed the port to 9080 instead of 8080 using the
-p parameter, since port 8080 is still being used by our apache2 container. If we were to try to also launch Nginx (or another Apache2 container) on port 8080, we’d get an error message,
Bind for 0.0.0.0:8080 failed: port is already allocated and then would need to remove the container and try again.
Speaking of removing containers, now that we know how to create generic default containers, let’s clean up:
$ sudo docker ps CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES d86e93c98e20 ubuntu/apache2:2.4-22.04_beta "apache2-foreground" 29 minutes ago Up 29 minutes 0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp, :::8080->80/tcp my-apache2-container eed23be5f65d ubuntu/nginx:latest "/docker-entrypoint.…" 18 minutes ago Up 18 minutes 0.0.0.0:9080->80/tcp, :::9080->80/tcp my-nginx-container $ sudo docker stop my-apache2-container $ sudo docker rm my-apache2-container $ sudo docker stop my-nginx-container $ sudo docker rm my-nginx-container
To be able to actually use the containers, we’ll have to configure and customize them, which we’ll look at next.