Obscure and incomplete instructions

The instructions given at various places such as "How to verify your Ubuntu Download are incomprehensible. The content creator left out in between instructions. I spent more than 6 hours to understand chksum and download executables. I could not succeed. Everyone that wants to use Ubuntu is not a technical junky. I could not understand where to get sha256sum , md5sum and gpg tools. Could not find any download link. You should have given download links and screenshot instructions.

Can anyone kindly help me?

Can you please be more specific than “various places?” Links would be very helpful.

And can you please be more specific about exactly what is missing?