CircleCI is a continuous integration service that can be used to build, test and deliver software. It’s priced based on the number of concurrent build instances you require. A single instance is free (or four for FOSS), and more are available.
We will use CircleCI to build your snap and push it automatically to the
edge channel of the snap store every time you make a change to your
master branch in GitHub.
What you’ll learn
- How to build your snap in CircleCI
- How to push your snap to the store automatically from CircleCI
- How to use snapcraft to enable all this, with a few simple commands
What you’ll need
- Ubuntu 16.04 or later
- A little knowledge of the Linux command line and git
- Snapcraft v2.37 or later
- A store account at https://dashboard.snapcraft.io
- How will you use this tutorial? - Only read through it - Read it and complete the exercises
- What is your current level of experience working with snaps? - Novice - Intermediate - Proficient
- What is your preferred continuous integration system? - Travis CI - CircleCI - Jenkins CI - GitLab CI - Other - None
Setting up GitHub
Before we can start the continuous delivery of snaps to the store, we will need a project with snap packaging. It can be hosted on either GitHub or Bitbucket; we’ll use GitHub, here.
If you already have your project in GitHub packaged as a snap, you can skip this step and jump straight to the next one. If you have your project in GitHub but haven’t packaged it yet, we have many tutorials that can help! The “Create your first snap” tutorial is a good place to start.
Let’s set up one GitHub project here, in case you don’t already have one.
First, go to https://github.com and sign up. Then, go to https://github.com/new where we will fill the details of our new repository. The only required field is the repository name where you can enter something like
hello-snap-yourusername. That might look something like this:
Next, click the “Create repository” button to get an empty repository in GitHub. Let’s put our snap project in there!
Open a terminal, and run the following commands. The first one is to install git:
sudo apt install git
Now, clone your repository to your local workspace, using the address displayed in GitHub. Something like this, but with your username:
mkdir -p ~/workspace cd workspace git clone email@example.com:kyrofa/hello-snap-username.git cd hello-snap-username
To create a snap project, open a text editor, and write the following content:
name: hello-yourname version: '2.10' summary: GNU Hello, the "hello world" snap description: GNU hello prints a friendly greeting. grade: stable confinement: strict apps: hello: command: bin/hello parts: gnu-hello: source: http://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/hello/hello-2.10.tar.gz plugin: autotools
Save it to
~/workspace/hello-snap-username/snap/snapcraft.yaml (remember to replace “username” with yours!)
This is the packaging metadata of a very simple snap, that, as the description says, will just print a greeting. The “Create your first snap” tutorial can provide details for all the lines of this file, so please refer to it to know more about the packaging. In here we will be focusing just on the continuous delivery, so let’s continue and push this snap to our GitHub repository:
git add snap/snapcraft.yaml git commit -m "add the hello snap" git push
Now that we have chosen our snap name, we need to make sure we register it to our store account (snap names are unique, and they must be registered before they can be published). Replace “hello-yourname” with whatever you used for the
name field in the
snapcraft login snapcraft register hello-yourname
We now have a GitHub project containing packaging details for a snap that has been registered to our account. Let’s move onto CircleCI.
Setting up CircleCI
To use CircleCI, first we will have to sign up there. Let’s go to [https://circleci.com/signup/] and click “Sign Up with GitHub”. Then, click “Authorize application” to allow CircleCI to access your GitHub account.
Now, you should see a list of GitHub repositories, including your snap. If you don’t see this list, there should be an “Add projects” button. Enable the GitHub repository of your snap by clicking the “Setup project” button next to it.
Once you select that button, you’ll be given a choice between the operating system and platform you’d like to use. You’ll need to use Linux (of course) and the CircleCI 2.0 platform.
You can even select a language, although since we’re only building snaps here, we’ll just use “Other”.
Finally, it gives you a suggestion for a basic
.circleci/config.yml. No need to do any of that, just hit “Start building”. That will set things up such that CircleCI will be triggered whenever you make changes to your repository. You’ll notice it starts to build the current state of the repository, but will soon realize there is nothing to run (because we haven’t done that, yet).
The way we tell CircleCI what needs to run is by creating a new directory in the root of our project called
.circleci, and creating a
config.yml file within it. Let’s go ahead and create that now, although we don’t put anything in that file just yet:
cd ~/workspace/hello-snap-username mkdir .circleci touch .circleci/config.yml
CircleCI will run the steps we specify in this file on every pull request and every time we make a change to any of the branches. These steps will be a few bash commands that we’ll provide momentarily to build and publish your snap.
Later you can use CircleCI to run your tests. For that you will have to adjust this file depending on the language of your project, and add steps to test your snap before pushing it. However, we don’t need any of that here – we’re just focusing on continuous delivery.
In the next step we’ll make sure that your snap can be built successfully in CircleCI, so we can push the generated snap to the store.
Building the snap in a clean environment
CircleCI uses a build environment based on Ubuntu 14.04, which is missing some requirements for running snapcraft. However, it does have support for Docker, so we will use a Docker container to build the snap.
Before we try building our snap in CircleCI, we need to make sure the snap builds correctly in a Docker container.
The need for a clean environment
When you build a snap on your machine, it could be using some dependencies that are already installed, but that you forgot to declare as
build-packages in the snapcraft.yaml. This means that, when someone tries to build the same snap on a different machine, those undeclared packages could be missing and the build would fail. A clean environment, such as a default Ubuntu 14.04 or 16.04 in a container, ensures reliable builds.
Let’s install Docker, to get the same environment that CircleCI will use to build the snap:
snap install docker
Go to the project directory, and run the snapcraft command in the container:
sudo docker run -v $(pwd):/my-snap snapcore/snapcraft sh -c "apt update && cd /my-snap && snapcraft"
This will take some time while Docker downloads the image, gets all the packages required by your snap, and builds it.
In the meantime, let’s take a look at the command we just ran. We are calling the
docker run command as the superuser, that’s clear. This will run a command in a docker container. The
-v argument mounts a directory in the container and the
pwd command is used to get the current directory path, this is basically giving the container access to the current directory, and mounting it in the
snapcore/snapcraft is the name of the snapcraft Docker image. What follows next is the command that we want to run in that container, so we first
cd to the mounted project directory and then run
snapcraft in there.
If everything goes well, a message like this one will be printed at the end, with the name of your snap:
If you can build your snap locally, but it fails when building it in the container, you’re probably missing some
build-packages in the snapcraft.yaml file. Use the error message to identify the missing packages, and try again until you are able to build the snap in a clean environment, without depending on your local machine.
Once you get the snap building in the Docker container, you can be confident that it will build without problems in CircleCI.
We are ready to enable continuous delivery!
Building and pushing the snap in CircleCI
The final step to enable continuous delivery from CircleCI to all your early adopters is to add some commands to the
.circleci/config.yml file we created earlier.
Export login capable of pushing this snap
The first thing we need to do is export a login so that the Snapcraft running in CircleCI can authenticate as us, thereby gaining permission to actually upload this snap (note that this feature requires at least Snapcraft v2.37, which at the time of this writing is only available in the
beta channel of the snap):
$ snapcraft export-login --snaps hello-kyrofa --channels edge --acls package_upload credentials Enter your Ubuntu One e-mail address and password. If you do not have an Ubuntu One account, you can create one at https://dashboard.snapcraft.io/openid/login Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Password: Login successfully exported to 'credentials'. This file can now be used with 'snapcraft login --with credentials' to log in to this account with no password and have these capabilities: snaps: ['hello-kyrofa'] channels: ['edge'] permissions: ['package_upload'] This exported login is not encrypted. Do not commit it to version control!
Using this command, we exported a login whose capabilities are limited to uploading a new revision of the
hello-kyrofa snap, and only releasing to the
edge channel. Take heed of the final warning, however: this exported login is not encrypted, and should not be placed directly into our repository. Let’s encrypt it, first:
$ sudo apt install openssl $ openssl aes-256-cbc -e -in credentials -out .circleci/credentials.enc enter aes-256-cbc encryption password: Verifying - enter aes-256-cbc encryption password:
Now you have your exported login safely encrypted with the password you selected in
.circleci/credentials.enc. You should now remove the unencrypted version:
Note that this exported login by default is only valid for a year. Once it expires you’ll have to do this step again to refresh it (export it and encrypt it using the same password).
We need to be able to decrypt this file in CircleCI, so open up your project’s settings. Under “BUILD SETTINGS” select “Environment Variables” and then select “Add Variable”
Create a new variable named “SNAPCRAFT_CREDENTIALS_KEY” and set its value to the password you used to encrypt the
.circleci/credentials.enc file above, then select “Add Variable”.
Fill out .circleci/config.yml
Now open up your
.circleci/config.yml file and make it look like this:
defaults: &defaults working_directory: ~/workspace docker: - image: snapcore/snapcraft:edge version: 2 jobs: build: <<: *defaults steps: - checkout - run: name: Update index command: apt update - run: name: Build snap command: snapcraft - persist_to_workspace: root: ~/workspace paths: ['*.snap'] release: <<: *defaults steps: - checkout - attach_workspace: at: ~/workspace - run: name: Install prerequisites command: | sudo apt update apt install -y openssl - run: name: Decrypt credentials command: | openssl aes-256-cbc -d \ -in .circleci/credentials.enc \ -out credentials \ -k $SNAPCRAFT_CREDENTIALS_KEY - run: name: Authenticate snapcraft command: snapcraft login --with credentials - run: name: Push/release snap command: snapcraft push *.snap --release edge workflows: version: 2 commit: jobs: - build - release: requires: [build] filters: branches: only: master
Let’s break that down piece by piece.
defaults: &defaults working_directory: ~/workspace docker: - image: snapcore/snapcraft:edge
This is a YAML anchor. It doesn’t do anything by itself, but we’ll be using it below to keep each job using the same settings. It provides a specification for the working directory (where we’ll build the snap) and tells CircleCI which Docker image to use.
As we mentioned previously, we’re using platform v2.0. This is how we communicate that to CircleCI.
jobs: build: <<: *defaults steps: - checkout - run: name: Update index command: apt update - run: name: Build snap command: snapcraft - persist_to_workspace: root: ~/workspace paths: ['*.snap']
Here we create the
build job, responsible for-- you guessed it-- building the snap. We use our
defaults anchor for the correct settings, and provide a number of steps to conduct the build:
- Checkout the code
- Install snapcraft
- Build the snap
- Cache the snap (so we can use it later)
release: <<: *defaults steps: - checkout - attach_workspace: at: ~/workspace - run: name: Install prerequisites command: | sudo apt update apt install -y openssl - run: name: Decrypt credentials command: | openssl aes-256-cbc -d \ -in .circleci/credentials.enc \ -out credentials \ -k $SNAPCRAFT_CREDENTIALS_KEY - run: name: Authenticate snapcraft command: snapcraft login --with credentials - run: name: Push/release snap command: snapcraft push *.snap --release edge
Here we create the
release job, responsible for pushing and releasing the snap in the store. Again, we use our
defaults anchor for the correct settings, and provide a number of steps to push/release the snap:
- Checkout the code
- Attach the workspace we cached in the
buildstep (thus getting the already-built snap)
- Install openssl
- Using openssl (and the environment variable we just created containing the password), decrypt the credentials
- Using snapcraft, login with the now-decrypted credentials, and push the snap, releasing to the
workflows: version: 2 commit: jobs: - build - release: requires: [build] filters: branches: only: master
workflows key gives us the ability to define when these jobs run. We create a single workflow named “commit” which runs on every commit (pull requests made, commits pushed to branches, etc.). That workflow consists of both of the jobs we just defined. The
build job runs on every commit (e.g. when a pull request is created, the
build job will run). However, the
release job has a filter on it that causes it to only run on the
That’s it! To finish, commit the changes and push, using these commands:
git add .circleci/config.yml git commit -m 'Enable continuous delivery of the snap from CircleCI' git push
Go to back to CircleCI and select “workflows”. You’ll either see one pending, or already running. Select it, and you’ll see two jobs: the
build job and the
release job. Once the
release job finishes, you should see a final message that looks something like this:
/snap/bin/snapcraft push *.snap --release edge Pushing hello-kyrofa_2.10_amd64.snap After pushing, an attempt to release to ['edge'] will be made Preparing to push '/home/circleci/workspace/hello-kyrofa_2.10_amd64.snap' to the store. Pushing hello-kyrofa_2.10_amd64.snap  100% Processing...| Ready to release! Revision 1 of 'hello-kyrofa' created. Track Arch Channel Version Revision latest amd64 stable - - candidate - - beta - - edge 2.10 1
You may have also received an email message from CircleCI notifying you about the successful execution, and another from the store notifying you about the new snap.
Congratulations! Now you can spread the word and tell everybody to help you test your app by running a single command:
$ snap install hello-kyrofa --edge
Now let’s do some crowd testing!
From now on, every single change that lands in the
master branch of your project will be made available to early adopters almost immediately. Your community of testers will be very happy because their edge snap will be updated automatically; they won’t have to do anything complex to help you test your most recent changes. It’s very likely that your community will grow, because they can be more involved with what’s happening in your project; they can report any issues as soon as they appear, and contribute to improve your releases. After letting this crowd testing happen for a while, you can then push to lower risk channels until you are confident enough to make it available to the world in the
Your final code should contain a
.circleci/ directory containing both a
config.yml as well as a
credentials.enc, similar to this demo repository.
You should successfully have built your snap in a clean environment, configured your project to build the snap continuously on CircleCI, and deliver a new version to the edge channel for every change on your
master branch. You can relax because your delivery pipeline is all automated. Now let your community know about this, encourage them to try the edge snap, and to tell their friends how cool it is to get even more testers.
- CircleCI is very nice, but it can only build snaps for the amd64 architecture. If you need to deliver your snaps for users in other architectures like armhf and arm64, you can use the snapcraft build service.
- Learn some more advanced techniques on how to use snaps by looking for other tutorials!
- Join the snapcraft.io community by subscribing to our forum.
- The CircleCI 2.0 docs have a lot of information about adding tests and other things to your CI executions.